Apartheid was introduced in 1948 and was designed to make the white minority in charge of the black minority and to be able to profit on South Africa’s rich resources without sharing with the black population. Marriage and sexual relations between white and other races were prohibited. The black population was ushered into 10 homelands called Bantustans and every black South African had to live in one of them. The black population opposed apartheid, but it took many years of protests, demonstrations, boycotts, international pressure and unthinkable suffering. The ANC (South African Native National Congress) was founded in 1912 and its mission was to end apartheid.
Not only did the trial of Captain Preston affect the relationship between the Americans and British, but also the Coercive Acts. After the Boston Tea Party, Britain passed these laws to punish Boston and reinforce British control. The laws affected the lives of the Americans and through the Boston Harbour Act, they were unable to utilize the harbour. Due to Britain taking away the people of Boston’s ability to export and import goods, Samuel Adams’ words were valued and Americans wanted Britain to be held accountable for “cutting off our trade with all parts of the world”. Adams was the founder of the Sons of Liberty, a group of merchants, politicians and lawyers, involved in the protest of the Stamp Act.
“Where justice is denied, where poverty is enforced, where ignorance prevails and where one class is made to feel that society is an organised conspiracy to oppress, rob and degrade them, neither persons nor property will be safe” - Frederick Douglass The above mentioned quote has a lot of resemblance with the situation in poverty and social exclusion in India. India after the post 1991 reforms had opened the economy so as to promote privatisation, liberalisation and globalisation, thereby ending the era of a stringent quasi-socialistic economy. It was envisaged by the policy makers of that time that if the economy was liberated then the situation with respect to poverty would change for the better. Early years of the twenty-first century did
The social division of the population was interpreted by Europeans as being based on racial differences between Hutu and Tutsi, thus introducing fundamental discord between the two that had never existed before. The Belgian regime emphasized the excellence of the so called Tutsi race even more than their German predecessors and took them into service in order to oppress the Hutu. The Concept of Colonizers and Missionaries of Hutu and Tutsi Identity the missionaries who have been active in Rwanda, the Roman Catholics White Fathers from 1900 and the Protestants from 1907 onwards, have followed the concepts of race developed by Western social sciences in the course of the nineteenth century. With reference to a famous study by Edith Sanders, it be may state that the word ‘race’ was a favorite term in the language of the enlightenment. The presupposition was that the European race was to be considered superior to the rest of humankind.
Europe settled itself in Africa which it exploited and alienated in every respect. It crushes (destroys, breaks) the continent’s autonomous development, puts an end to its traditional self-sufficiency in all fields; violently introduces its products and imposes a trading economy structured around colonial metropolises’ needs (precious metals, agricultural products, etc.). It is the way Africa is introduced, by fire and blood (through violence), into the Western economy of which it becomes entirely dependent. The British colonization incited (roused, caused) in South Africa the Transvaal Boers’ revolt led by Paul Kruger who rejected, on 11 October 1899, the British ultimatum. The Boers’ war ended on 5/31/1902 with a halftone English victory.
Through imperialism, western nations and Japan spread their rule throughout the world. Obviously, no one is never going to freely allow others to take over their nation. So, imperialism was mostly done using force. One area that was deeply affected by imperialism was Africa. While the positive effects of imperialism in Africa were Africa at the end was freed from European control and Africans were able to govern themselves & in Europe they access raw material and vase amount of land; the negative effects of imperialism in Africa caused great damage to human rights, social division, murder and raped of Africans and spread of racism throughout the continent; for Europe, the
Gandhi had suffered racial discrimination in South Africa. At the time, India and South Africa were colonies being ruled by the British. Gandhi used his background as a lawyer and an activist to lead a peaceful movement to gain Indian independence. He hoped that he could attract attention from the British. Gandhi often led acts of civil disobedience, refusing to obey certain laws or demands of the government, such as fasting, protesting, going on marches to spread word of their goal to obtain Indian independence.
The Soweto uprising of 1976 was a volcanic eruption that led to years of resistance in other parts of South Africa. The June 16 Soweto uprising was a result of the apartheid government making inconsiderate decisions which they thought would be beneficial to everybody, more specifically the ‘superior race’ in South Africa. What the government didn’t realise was that their actions were only making things in South Africa worse. These apartheid policies were the main cause of the Soweto Uprising. As much as the government introduced the policies that only infuriated the people, the Black Consciousness Movement and its other organisations swooped in and gave people solutions to their mounding problems.
While these political and physical conflicts have come to an end with the new compromise in the government, other results from this conflict are still around such as the hyperinflation that has destroyed Zimbabwe’s economy. This problem again stems back to the colonial times. Later when the new government declared independence Mugabe, Zimbabwe’s new leader, blew these percentages out of proportion in order to justify his redistribution of land to the poorer population. While this did move the nation a very small step closer towards equality, it destroyed the production of cash crops that the economy was based on, destroying the economy and blowing inflation far out of
Marthoz (2013) contends that during that era South Africa was under authoritarian system that secured white interests and promoted a hostile foreign policy and domestic policies. The apartheid government carried out racist and unjust policies that supressed and violated human rights. From 1994 the democratic era South Africa transformed its foreign policy and adopted liberal ideas that promoted democracy, advocating a more peacekeeping and peace building state; however it was not entirely successful. Marthoz (2013) highlight this by referring to the fact that in present moment South Africa`s foreign policy seems rather self-contradictory, in that it is divided between ethics and interests, liberal internationalist and national sovereignty that promotes authoritarian system on the other side. Marthoz (2013) further advocates on the continued failure of the ANC to deliver its promises to the mass which affects its foreign policy and by this contradiction, the ANC favours a populist and anti-imperialist system on the other side it supports a pragmatist and realistic foreign policy.