Therefore, the theatre of absurd is related to existentialism, which is a philosophical movement postulating that human essence precedes existence and that man and other things are nothing but their own choices and freedom. Therefore, man takes responsibility as a result of his freedom of choice. Endgame is an expression or method through which individuals exist in seclusion and at the same time they have a yen for the past. There are some resemblances between Beckett’s play and existentialism because his characters displaying the existentialist man who is looking for becoming an authentic one ( Taniv).Furthermore, there is an essential amalgamation between existentialism and Beckett’s thoughts through highlighting absurdity. The existentialist deduces that life is ridiculous, disorganized and senseless
It was once said by George Orwell that “Happiness can only exist in acceptance”. Edward Scissorhands directed by Tim Burton is a film pushing us to be more aware of this very message. Edward Scissorhands is isolated, on top of a hill, at the beginning of the film we see he is retrieved by Peg and taken into society but is taken advantage of because of his difference. Edward is an outcast, he is a creation and stands out in society. Because society can’t handle the fact that Edward is different he is isolated, judged and taken advantage of.
An example of such comparison would be when he states, “My fictional view of the period, my sense of its unreality had been, like any impotence, a psychological painful experience”(17). Miller clearly states that viewpoint coming from the fictional characters from The Crucible compares to his reality. The reality in which both places had to maintain a “social unity intact”, “authority of leaders had to be hardened”, and “words of skepticism had to be constricted”(17). The Crucible is a story in which it compares the two worlds such as fictional and non-fictional and makes them into one, the story is not history but instead, a moral, “political and psychological construct that floats on the fluid of emotion from both eras”(47). Miller would also use simile to compare two thing or two words, an example would be when it states, “Turning to Salem was like looking into a petri dish, an embalmed stasis with its principal moving forces caught in stillness”(28).
Nonetheless, Mr. Hyde finds that he cannot possibly go on with his dark desires while at the same time maintain his reputation. In Cohen’s \ perspective, the respectable Dr Jekyll could entertain thoughts as a man living a forbidden life and full of vices. However, he is held in check by his superego’s moral restraints. Consequently, we see Jekyll gradually transforming his moral and physical self into another being, Hyde, a diabolical man that comes to recognize his
Pessimism is conceptualised as a lens under which the values of life are viewed with a sombre temperament that distorts one’s appreciation for life itself, by ignoring its good aspects, thus lowering one’s expectations. Arthur Schopenhauer is often understood as the greatest pessimist in Western philosophy despite never formally characterising himself as such. He does however use the concepts “optimism” and “pessimism” to classify certain conceits of suffering in his philosophy on human existence in order to classify the ‘good’ and ‘evil’ that pervade the human condition. Schopenhauer articulates what he perceives as the cruel realities of the pain that comes with life, by asserting that human existence is burdened by the twin poles of human suffering; want and boredom, stressing that ‘will’ dictates the cursor towards these ends, 1850, p: 45. In the matter of good and evil, can pessimistic judgments about life, such as the one expressed in the quotation by Schopenhauer, be an objective philosophical analysis of human existence?
Beckett’s drama is based on his perception of human condition, that is, being born and mostly living in pain, suffering ordeals, a short rough and unpleasant existence. Man’s needs and desires are all reduced. Therefore, “All Beckett’s work comprises a unity in which certain attitudes are expressed in different ways with much force and rare imagination: life is cruel and painful; failure is no worse than success because neither matters; what is important is to avoid giving pain to others and to share misfortune”, there is neither a meaning nor an explanation; there is and there remains only nothingness, thereby putting Beckett closer to existentialist beliefs which puts him close to the Existentialists. Life and its meaning gets reduced to cruelty, frustration and absence of hope revolving around the repetitive themes of birth, death and emo-tions like despair, anxiety and physical limitations. The reader is insistently and rather forcefully reminded that his existence is
Webster’s Dictionary defines individuality as “the quality that makes one person or thing different from all others”, and conformity as “behavior that is the same as the behavior of most other people in a society”. John F. Kennedy says, “Conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth.” Oftentimes, much like in Kennedy’s case, individualism is praised over conformity, labeling the former good or courageous and the latter bad or lazy, because individuality fuels change, whereas conformity prompts a societal stasis. However, it needs to be taken into account that humans are, in Aristotle’s words, social animals and thus, in societies as complex and intricate as ours, stasis suggests stability, which is not necessarily bad. There are two sides to every medallion, and this particular medallion has captured the attention of countless thinkers. Among these thinkers were Aldous Huxley and Ray Bradbury.
In the book Lord of The Flies, William Golding conveys his beliefs on human nature through the egomaniacal character Jack Merridew. Jack reveals that humans must forfeit their identity to conquer their fear. Through the course of the book, Jack changes who he is to conquer his fear of failure. His name reflects these perceptions of who he is and how others view him. As ‘Merridew’, he is the successful chapter chorister and head boy.
“Man Jeete Jag Jeet” in Japji Sahib by Guru Nanak is a world famous teaching of controlling over the desires of mind lest one gets corrupted by them. It means, one can win the world but one cannot easily win over the mind/ desires. Therefore, a man who has controlled his mind is greater than the one who has conquered the world. The characters – Marlow and Kurtz – in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness display such contrast. The present study is aimed at understanding the symbolic darkness in the novella in the light of above given line by Guru Nanak.
According to Rousseau, nature is man’s state before being influenced by outside forces. At the same time, he asserts: “If man is left… to his own notions and conduct, he would certainly turn out the most preposterous of human beings. The influence of prejudice, authority… would stifle nature in him and substitute nothing.” Humans in nature are good but when it comes to sharing goods with others, selfishness and egoism appear which creates the evil. While living in society, people observe what others have and they wish to own similar things, but if they don’t have the ability to possess those things, jealousy appears, and thus they seek bad ways like stealing, robbing, making crimes to achieve their wish. As we can see now, for example two developed countries fighting against each other for their own benefit, this is called selfishness.