Not only by exposing them to the language they will speak, read and write the English language correctly, students must learn and understand the meaning of words. Vocabulary words help any English language learner communicate effectively with any other person. According to Wilkins (1972), “Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because, without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas.” On the other hand, many teachers recognize the importance of teaching vocabulary and they must emphasize it daily in their lessons. Among many skills, vocabulary in context is one of the most commonly used. To aid vocabulary in context, the use of a Card-file among other strategies may enrich the student’s experience and understanding of what they speak, read, and
They also motivate the students' performance in the language; so in this case, teaching is geared largely to tests. Hughes (1996) mentioned that if a test is regarded important, preparation for it should dominate all teaching and learning activities. Otherwise, the test content and testing techniques will be at variance with objectives of the course, which will result harmful washback. Davies (1990) also mentioned that tests have great influence on teaching, which is known as washback or backwash effect, and this strong influence is usually negative. For example, for university study in one of the English speaking countries, the students should have a good command of language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) in order to be able to understand the lectures in the classroom, take notes, attend classroom discussion, and read and comprehend the texts.
Standardization and creative thinking have always had a unique relationship because of how both deal with the ways that people look at the world. Standardization can be defined as the process of making something uphold a certain level. Creative thinking has always been thought of as a different way for people to learn and grasp information that might be understood in a more traditional learning method. “Project Classroom Makeover,” written by Cathy Davidson, discusses how standardization has a large impact on people who see the world from a creative way of thinking. The idea of standardizing education is one that has caused much worry in few people’s eyes because of the different ways that people learn and absorb knowledge.
Interpretation is the main purpose in an inquiry discussion question because interpretations will be different for every student. Interpretation questions stimulate conversation and appeal to the text for evidence. A good interpretive question composes questions from the text to prepare discussion and forces the leader to work with ideas about its meaning. The characteristics for good interpretive questions are that they should make you think and have you doubt yourself. When you are going to answer there should be two
Language is the fundamental factor leading and affecting communication. Language is communication and vice versa. It can also helps with everyday tasks such as, explaining issues and procedures exchanging ideas or learning ideas. Being knowledgeable about language is a key for successful communication in relationships and in the workplace. I would say that without language, we would not be able to communicate.
Dillon and McKenzie (1998) study and found that the most important factors that should be (passive voice provide more detail)analyzed for better listening are receiver apprehension, willingness to communicate, and readiness to listen, in addition to improving culture competence. To achieve intercultural skills is to avoid generalizations about other cultures, unless they are completely familiar. When listening is perceived to be required, the quality and intensity of a person is mediated by their attitude toward the concepts of listening competence and performance (Imhof & Janusik, 2006). Culture forms an individual’s worldview, and is especially pronounced when intercultural communication is attempted. To take into account the effects of listening, it is important to consider the speaker and the listener.
In other words language is important as it allows people to express their thoughts as well as beliefs. Language does not necessarily define one's identity and identity does not define language, however it does affect it. Depending on how many languages people know, they are able to decide on what language they want to use in order to communicate with other communities according to their identities.One's identity defines and regulates the use of language and not the contrary.
Even if genetically we are designed to acquire a language, the communication with people sharing the same language’s characteristics is essential. This interaction’s crucial role would explain the obvious nurture importance in the process of acquiring a language. Many linguists have defended the importance of the environment and experiences in the acquisition of a language. Piaget argued that language is not the direct result of an innate characteristic but a capacity related to cognitive development. There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process.
Impact of Culture Culture is an important factor that affects one’s perception, it greatly influences one’s behavior and shapes their personality which can have a significant impact on one’s education and the curriculum. Stating the importance of culture must be assessed when teaching English Language Learners, ELLs. The challenges for many English Language Learners are not overcoming a language barrier but also achieving academically. Orosco and O’Connor state that “ELLs bring a wealth of cultural and linguistic knowledge into the classroom, but perhaps our schooling is a complex process that often separates students’ personal learning experiences from the classroom resulting in a challenge of acquiring the skills for reading instruction”.
John, 1998). Nevertheless, knowing learners’ needs is not a simple task due to the multi-interpretations of the needs. (As discussed in section 2.2.2) Competency-based learning by comparison focuses on the outcomes or outputs of learning in the development of language program. It addresses what the learners are expected to do with the language; however they learned to do it. “The focus on outputs rather than on inputs to learning is central to the competencies perspective.” (Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 141).