To produce meaning, the concepts must be translated into common language. Halls refers to language as “anything from written words, spoken sounds and visual images, to music, fashion and even facial expressions”. A stereotype is a form of representation but a stereotypical representation is often inaccurate, partial, negative and limited. According to Hall and Itzin, a stereotype is an exaggerated, misleading and distorted representation of a group of people or a person through the reduction of that group or person to a few essential characteristics. Itzin explains a stereotype as representing “a set of ideas or a set of beliefs about people - an ideology rather than as people as they are.”
Each discipline is bounded by their own methodology, epistemology and knowledge that shape the language used and how one articulates themselves. As Wear (1999) notes (as cited in Bracken & Oughten, 2006), specific disciplines use terminology or ‘dialects’ which although sound like common language, can have different meanings and interpretation across the disciplines. The dangers of leaving a word unquestioned is the risk of non-experts acquiring a false sense of understanding which can ultimately snowball into further miscommunication and frustration as the discussion develops (Bracken & Oughten, 2006). In this respect, mentors can help to reflect on theses issues and facilitate dialogue on these language differences. This provides an opportunity for members to negotiate meanings and unpack certain assumptions and values attached to the word (Thompson, 2009).
1. A language is a group of symbols with rules which carry messages between people. Language is rule-governed: Phonological rules: It's how words when people enunciate them out loud. There are words which can be same in two languages, however, can sound very different by two natives.
Human beings depend highly on effective communication when they interact. “Communication is any process in which people share information, ideas and feelings”, it also “involves not the spoken and written words but also body language, personal mannerisms, styles and anything that add meaning to a message” (Dina Burger 2011). There are various types of communication, but I will be focusing on verbal and non-verbal communication, they consist of various elements that distinguish them from one another and we both use them in different environments. Verbal communication is a form of communication that one uses to convey a message through language or the use of words, it comes in different forms from speaking to writing (letters and emails) and the most important factor listening, “it expresses one’s thought and feelings to
All of us can draw up separating lines within any cultures to isolate co-cultures using parameters such as age group, gender, politico-social affiliation, lifestyle choice, socioeconomic level, racial, education, region, language, and religion. We may all are part of the human kinds, and we may all be unique. Characteristics of Co-culture: A co culture is a group of people whose beliefs and behavior are different from the dominate culture.
And the repetitive narration of a same incident may suggest the narrator share the same interpretation with a character, which makes this interpretation more convincible. The maxim of quality applies to both characters and narrators in literature discourse. Sometimes different interpretation could occur due to the different amount of information accessed by characters and narrators. And an omniscient narrator could provide better
This seems to reflect a deterministic view, which in addition could be seen as limitative because the possible influence of other factors is not sufficiently taken into account. It could be argued, for instance, that the appearance of consistent behaviour may be caused, at least partially, by the similarity of situations in which people are usually involved and in response to which they develop standard reactions based on cognitive factors, social and cultural influences, etc. Indeed, apart from built-in personality traits, other factors, such as the environment and the interaction personality-situation, are nowadays acknowledged as having an impact on behaviour and require that personality is examined on multiple levels (e.g. Funder,
My Discourse Communicating is something we all do as human beings. However, it is something that varies from different group to group. Even people belonging to the same language can have different discourses from each other. It all depends on the demographic they are from and what social group they are in. This can affect all aspects of their communication such as the spoken word, their writing, and their gestures.
There are different types of nonverbal communication. Body movements is a different type of nonverbal communication. Body movements are the most noticeable elements of nonverbal communication. Body Movement consists of posture, gestures, face and eyes. A posture can say a lot of a person.