He also criticizes the capitalists in European economics. These people collect factories and raw materials for production, pay their laborers wages to produce goods, and as a result produce a profit due to good calculations. Although he says this is the rational thing to do to make more money, it is exploiting lower class laborers. Labor becomes an object, a type of commodity, instead of something people do. Consequently, laborers become an object and lose their humanity.
It doesn’t take into account the expenditure of brain and muscle power which actually constitute the labour until he is set to work. In capitalism the labour contract is legally limited or terminable or both. This shows the fact that the labour is indeed selling himself. Now since the labour power is a commodity it will have a value like another
According to this ideology, you get out of the system what you put into it, so regardless of class or background if the student works hard they will be successful, equal opportunity for all. Marxism does not believe that true meritocracy occurs within the educational system. (Kennedy and Power, 2010) Bowles and Gintis (1976) argue the notion and existence of meritocracy. As there is inequality in a capitalist society, this is reflected in the educational system. According to Bowles and Gintis (1976) the main factor in determining someone’s success and income is not to their ability but a result of their background and class.
The labor of workers becomes a commodity that only profits the owner. Marx compares the worker to the owner using the terms proletariat and bourgeoisie. Because of the structure of capitalism, there is always an intrinsic conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Capitalism demystifies human relationships, “the bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation” (Marx 161). Once the labor of a worker is no longer needed, they will be dismissed
Karl Marx’s key tenet as to inequality is capitalism in his eyes defines one’s social class having a direct influence on one’s life experiences and life chances. The problem with capitalism is that is distorts the structure and meaning of the work process, with negative consequences for society as a whole and especially for workers. The distortion comes from several characteristics basic to the capitalist mode of economic organization: private property, surplus expropriation, the division of labor, and the alienation of work. Private property is a social activity, requiring groups of people working together to create things. Private property is the byproduct of division of labor.
The concept of cultural production is very much discussed by many theorists under the context of capitalism. According to Marx, the ideology and values of the ruling class is spread to the working class through what Engels called, the “false consciousness”. Marx posited that the control of the ruling class over the means of production includes not only the production of goods but also the production of ideas, values and beliefs. The working class suffers from “false consciousness” in that they are beckon to believe that the dominant ideology is in the best interest of the entire society. Through this phrase of “false consciousness”, the realities of exploitation and domination are concealed and obscured, thus allowing the ideology and values
By ignoring the lower class or the powerless, those that influence important political decisions ignore those who make up a great majority of the population. The article mentions the use of the Brechtian or Schweikian forms of resistance as “Integral parts of the small arsenal of relatively powerless groups.” (Scott, Resistance 34). This form of resistance includes acts including false compliance, foot-dragging, smuggling, poaching and so on. Techniques such as these, are the ordinary means of class struggle. The term class struggle refers to the ideology of Karl Marx, which stated that there would be conflicts of interest between the working class and the ruling class in a capitalist society.
He has an ambivalent attitude to the peasantry. In his famous book “The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte”, Karl Marx formulates the peasant economy as a mode of production among the peasants which instead of bringing them together, isolated them from one another and it happens through the lack of good means of communication and poverty. For Marx, each peasant family is almost self-sufficient because they directly produce their needs for consumption and saving in an exchange with nature than in dealing with society. The economy of a village has the same features because the combination of peasant families makes a village. He sees the lack of division of labor in the cultivation of the field, the small holding, lack of applicable science and absence of proper social relationship as the backwardness of the peasant economy.
From the social point of view, processes are qualified as being endogenous when they occur within the social system, conflicts arising due to tensions between socially unequal groups and classes, inequality being powered by economically contradictions, which, ultimately, grow into social contradictions calling for change. In this scenario, we can point to labour and capital contradictions and, at the social level, contradictions between the proletariat and bourgeoisie, inevitably leading to class struggle, the Marxian framework being connected with an endogenous theory of social change (Valade, 2006). Marx maintained that social inequalities typical of capitalism would end only when the working class had established the proletarian class. This, he argued, would bring in a classless, collectivist society, with distribution of social goods to each according to their individual needs. Marx’s model raises, but does not solve,