Other groups found in Borno include Engizim, Kare-kare, Marghi, Babur Bura, and Marga. The major articles of trade produced in the region were largely agricultural products such as cotton goods, industrial products like leather goods and extractive minerals such as neutron and salt, as well as forest produce like gum Arabic, bees wax, benni seed etc. that were sold through local and long distance trade since before the coming of the Europeans. With the establishment and consolidation of the Sayfawa dynasty in Borno from the late 15th century, the state established trading links with neighboring states to the West, Central Africa, and North African states across the Sahara. Borno’s internal and external trade suffered a setback in the 19th century, especially because of the Sokoto jihad of 1804 and the Rabeh interlude from 1893 to
Pidgin and creole are both contact languages with their biggest difference that creole is the mother tongue of a language community. Furthermore, creole is a developed form of pidgin, which means that creole is a "full" language and pidgin is not one. Moreover, the word origin of creole is detailed and has a long history beginning with the Latin language until the Portuguese words crioulo and criado. On the other hand pidgin’s history is not detailed. Therefore it is assumed that it is derived from the Hebrew word pidjom which has the meaning for which it was mostly used the trade.
Cassidy (1966) in Mohammed, (2010, p.3) further added that the African component could have come from the early slave population which spanned from Senegal southward to Angola with the earliest settlers coming from the Gold Coast-Nigeria region 2. Further echoing this point is Carrington (1977:37) when he related that, “Our Creoles resulted from contact between Africans and Europeans in the context of the slave trade and New World Slave society.” Hence the evolution of Creolese had its genesis as the groups of persons “who did not share the same Language’ sought to communicate with each other. Carrington, (1977:36). The other influences including the Americans, East Indians, West African, Arawakan, Caribbean, and Amerindian languages all contributed to what is known as Creolese. Creole became the native language of the African population during the Slave Trade.
The Ewe language is the most widely spoken of a cluster known as the Gbe languages, which includes the language of the Fon people. The Gbe language cluster is part of the wider Kwa group of languages. For many years, the coastal Ewe traded with Europeans, at first selling war captives as slaves and, when the slave trade ended, selling raw materials such as copra (the dried “meat” of coconuts) and palm oil. In the late 1800s, the western Ewe came under British colonial rule in what was then called the Gold Coast, while the Germans ruled the eastern Ewe in German Togoland. After World War I, Togoland became a joint British and French protectorate (colony).
Croele is basically a language that, in most cases, was formed by combining many other languages to form a new spoken language. There are many forms of Creole, such as Haitian Creole, Lousiana Creole French, Krio language Pidgin and Mauritian Creole, which my partner and I decided to explore. My partner, Ebrahim Behardien and I chose Mauritian Creole because of its unique nature and rich history. We researched its origin and liked the idea of it. Ebrahim speaks English, Afrikaans and German while I speak English, Afrikaans and a bit of Urdu.
The classification of a pidgin changes into a creole when children acquire the pidgin as their native language and it becomes the established mother tongue in the community. Similarly to a pidgin, a creole is an individual language which has developed most of its vocabulary from another language, but has unique structural rules. However, a creole is not limited in use, and can be used for a variety of functions, unlike a pidgin. (reword) History of Tok Pisin Tok Pisin is an English-derived creole generated in and spoken in Papua New Guinea. It is recognized as one of the three official languages alongside approximately 900 tongues, and is the most widely used language in the urban areas.
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ENGLISH IN MALAYSIA The history of English in Malaysia started as early as 19th century. It began when the British Empire expanded its mission of searching gold, glory and propagating of gospel to the South East Asia including Malaysia. The first British Colonist head called Francis Light headed in Penang. In the beginning, the British Colonist communicated with the locals using English and helped by sign language as most of the people cannot speak English at that moment.
In the past decades the use of English as a medium of instruction has been advocated in many countries, including Botswana. As mentioned by De Wet (2009:pg. 119), “English language has become the dominant medium of instruction in Southern Africa”. Botswana is a multilingual and multicultural nation with 28 languages spoken in the country. Despite its linguistic diversity Botswana recognizes only two languages of instruction: Setswana which is the national language and English as a foreign language.
As Richards (1983) states, Singapore English differs a bit from the Standard British English in grammar and vocabulary, and more noticeably in phonology. To understand the situation, we should know that Singapore was under British colonial rule from 1819 until 1965. Before 1965, the standard form of English in Singapore had always been British English and "Received Pronunciation", which was brought to the island. As Bao (2001) indicates, education in the English language only took place after Singapore gained its independence in 1965, therefore, English in Singapore began to take a life of its own, which led to the development of the now known as Standard Singapore English. Singapore is considered nowadays a cosmopolitan melting pot of ethniticies.
This study investigates the contribution of the Cameroonian print media to the development of Cameroon English (CamE) and the English language as a whole. Insights are drawn from suppositions on new or world Englishes (Schneider 2003, 2007, 2008; Kachru 1986, 1992; Platt, Weber & Ho 1984) who maintain that factors such as the function, socio-cultural, educational and political factors motivate the spread of New Englishes. Analysis of some 200 issues of Cameroon Tribune, The Herald and The Post newspapers collected from 2008 – 2014 reveal that print media sources enrich CamE with loan words from mother tongues, borrowed nominal elements from Cameroon Pidgin English (CPE) and French, coinages, idioms, stylistic devices, deviant prepositions,