Central to the Phenomenology of Perception is this rediscovery of “lived perception.” It is from “lived perception” that we have access to reality, and indeed, to ourselves. It is on the basis of this “lived perception” that we abstract, conceptualize, theorize, and develop our sciences and philosophies. Our abstractions, conceptualizations, theories, sciences and philosophies are the particular ways in which we take hold of the reality as given to us in “lived perception.” While they give us reality as it is, they give it to us in limited ways. But because they give us reality, we tend to be so overwhelmed with what is given that we overlook the limitations of each of these ways of grasping the reality (the blind men and the elephant phenomenon). It is as if the more reality is manifested by our abstractions, conceptualizations, theories, sciences, and philosophies, the less likely we will be aware of their limitations.
It “describes the fundamental dynamics between mind (neuro) and language (linguistic) and how their interplay affects our body and behavior (programming)” (Dilts, Robert B.) It is this that controls how we think, communicate and act in the world, and being aware of it can change the current population’s neurological system. Subliminal messages use this principle to introduce or even just reinforce an idea. It may be beneficial, such as weight watching schemes, but the term is often associated as having a negative effect since its audience is unaware of it occurring, making them a victim. NLP involves strategic thinking and a large understanding of how the mental and cognitive processes behave, therefore subliminal messages can not be accidental, an effective one would have involved planning and a study of the intended audience along with potential of the message’s consequences.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is a theory that a person’s thoughts and actions are determined by the language or languages that the individual speaks. The structure and meaning, as well as the culture of the speakers, are hypothesise to affect and shape the thoughts of the speaker. Following are quotes from the two linguists who first formulated the hypothesis and for whom it is named: “Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language and that language
Language plants its own seeds of change, and social background offers fertile ground for its growth. Bhatti (2013) asserts that if structure is at the heart of language, then variation defines its soul. As Sapir (1921) puts it “Everyone knows that language is variable.” Furthermore, variation allows us to differentiate individuals, groups, communities, states and nations. The study of language variation is pivotal to the solution of basic problems in linguistic theory (Labov 1966, 2001). Variability is prevalent in language; one of the amazing facts about human communication is the demonstrated ability to normalize the inherent variation within every spoken or written message in processing the linguistic signal.
Cognitive Dissonance According to Webster Dictionary (), cognitive dissonance is the discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance in social psychology proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by altering existing cognitions. It 's also believed that by adding new cognitions, a person can create a consistent belief system, or alternative by reducing the importance of any one of the dissonant elements. Leon Festinger was an author, psychologist, and a realm of new light in the late 1950 's. In 1957, he wrote a book called Theory of Cognitive Dissonance where his research for this period was remarkable.
When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987).
It has become a means of communication, discovery and self-presentation, it is undeniable that the mass-media has profound effects on the development of the thoughts and attitudes of individuals. Whether consciously or subconsciously it infiltrates our minds and alters our perceptions of how we see others. The cultivation theory developed by George Gerbner (1967) conducted research on the impact of mass media and how as humans we inadvertently are influenced by the symbols and portrayals of the media. Through this, we construct a sense of self and who we are and aren’t. It is pivotal in reaffirmation and creation of attitudes we have.
The knowledge of systems thinking has open-up a whole new world to me, and my perspective on problem solving. Based on above workings, and how I’ve concluded the effect on my working capital issue, by understanding the whole system, made a big difference. Focusing on the purpose of the whole system and to retain the connections between components whiles discarding detail which sometimes can really waste ones time. Understanding that simple cause – and effect relationships are insufficient to explain a complex system, but feedback loops are a better way to think about complex systems. With the systematic approach we must be able to see what is happening vs. what our aim are, and always keep in mind what the effect on the whole system would be if improvements are
The Importance of Perception What is Human Perception? A Perception is the experience we have after our brain assembles and combines thousands of individual, meaningless sensations into a meaningful pattern or image. But, our perceptions are rarely exact replicas of the original stimuli. Rather, our perceptions are usually changed, biased, colored, or distorted by our unique set of experiences. Thus, perceptions are our personal interpretations of the real world.
Nowadays English learning is crucial because English is the international communication medium. The language is necessary for different activities, including education, politics, and socio-economics (Medgyes, 1994; Mckay, 2002). To be a successful language learner, the learners need something in order to be forced both in the initial process and during the continuous process of learning, something, which always keep them interested until they become successful. One factor, which has played a major role while the learners are studying a language, is motivation. The systematic study of the second language motivation goes to back to the late 1950s when two social psychologists in Canada, Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert, launched a series of studies on motivation.