Jennifer Baumgardner is a well known writer and feminist she has written and lectured on many subjects from sexuality to women's power and as such she often tries to draw attention to the feminist movement itself. While some may argue that the feminist movement is a thing of the past and that there are no longer waves happening with the movement, but Jennifer delves into the history of the movement itself in order to explore the question on whether or not a new wave of feminism is around and why it would even matter if it were. In an excerpt from one of her books, F'em: Goo Goo Gaga and Some Thoughts on Balls! Baumgardner suggests in her essay Is There a Fourth Wave?
Many women later began to use the term “feminism” to describe their reform efforts that stressed social justice, economic equality, and sexual freedom. (Book, 533) Margaret Sanger is a woman that pushed for widespread use of contraception. Early advocates of women’s rights thought that only educated women should vote, but progressive reformers wanted all women to have that right. The nineteenth amendment gave women the vote to in national
Gloria Steinem can ultimately be said to be a leader of the feminist movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Her involvement in the movement shaped the way feminism is viewed in the USA today, especially considering her role in causes such as abortion, and women in journalism, specifically Ms. Magazine. While she was not solely responsible for any part of the Women’s movement, as she was part of different groups of women who “led” the movement, her influence is undeniable, and most certainly pivotal to how modern feminism is viewed today. Second wave feminism came as a response to the reinstatement of the domestic role of women as women’s sole role in a post-World War Two society. A male centred society and the patriarchy were once again being accepted as the norm and perpetuated.
In Gloria Steinem’s, “Our Revolution Has Just Begun,” Steinem addresses many different aspects of feminism, including the myths surrounding it and the hard evidence of sexism in the world today. This is closely linked to standpoint theory, defined as “different social and historical situations give rise to very different group and individual experiences and theories about those experiences” (WL, G-6). Steinem offers many valid criticisms of modern society and the stereotypes and myths surrounding feminism and women’s culture. For instance, she offers two main stereotypes that are common misconceptions of feminism today. The first stereotype is that feminism is only for white women of the middle class, and the second is that the feminist era
The first wave feminists may have been classified as ‘Wowsers’ by some, due to people’s perceptions in the way they used the ideas of society, and behaviour of men, during the late 19th to early 20th century to oppose their exclusion from social and political life, and to improve society’s views of women and women’s rights. This essay will argue that the first wave feminists were not ‘Wowsers’, and that the women’s movement needed to act against the behaviour of men and society’s ideologies to improve women’s rights. This will be demonstrated by examining the social construction of gender role expectations and masculinity. While also focusing on societies views of sexuality and sexual morality and the impact this had on women and young girls
This negative and manipulative depiction was damaging because it denied any legitimacy to the movement and trivialized its cause. Nevertheless, the role of the media was central in shaping public understanding and interpretation of feminism because they veritably defined the movement. Thus, the dependence on the media to promote the movement and its issues remained very problematic. The representation of feminism in the media could affect their ability to mobilize new members, to generate collective feminist identity and to develop political
During the 1960’s, America was undergoing changes technologically and socially. During this time period the concept of feminism was brought back. During the early 1900’s, the first-wave of feminism occurred, where protests happened demanding the right for women to vote. This movement was successful, as white women gained the right to vote but nothing else was fixed. Women were still at a lower social standpoint then men at the time and nothing would change until the 1960’s.
The Magazine in which this article was published is known as Ms. Magazine, and was co-created by Gloria Steinem as an insert of New York magazine in the early 70’s. it has been the voice of many feminists throughout the decades. In this article, Gloria Steinem calls to arms the feminists of today. She states that this era of feminism should not take up the mindset of “relax; feminism was their mothers’ movement.” (3) Her fear is, the women of the wave she was involved in will be rooted in the past, when they really need to be focused on the future.
In a world of ever-changing societal movements, there’s one word we’ve all come across: feminism. To some, it’s a repugnant message of female superiority. To others, it’s a glorifying medium through which social justice is heard. Why does feminism appear to be such an insulting, unappealing word to some, and so important to others? While the issue of feminism has two very opposing viewpoints, each stance has some interesting rationales.
2.3.2. Second wave feminism Second-wave feminism (late 1960s - 1990s in the USA, but ongoing in various parts of the world) is concerned about the self-consciousness of women, their sexuality and reproductive rights in conjunction with seeking social equality for women (Rampton, 2014; Baxandall & Gordo, 2005: 415). Second wave feminists are concerned about the sexualisation of women in the media both on the cultural and political levels (Hollows and Mosely in Hatton and Trautner, 2013: 65). In the history of America the woman’s movement during the 1960s and the 1970s was the largest social movement of all women’s movement in the world (Baxandall & Gordo, 2005: 415). America women’s movement developed in two separate streams, which are founded
Femininity is missed by women’s movement. While feminism succeeded to establish the fact that women are equally human to men, the fact that women are also women; that is uniquely feminine- has been lost (Denison, p. 89) Oppositely, postfeminism embrace the idea of ‘unique equality’ and all things feminine. The new focus is emphasize “femininity as a means of asserting power since the feminine is equal to the masculine even though it may look different” (p. 89). Postfeminism seems to embrace feminine and masculine characteristic and differences.
Choose one or two examples of media texts and explore how they might challenge or disrupt Mulvey’s concept of ‘the male gaze’. With the rise of the internet and social media, “feminism” has risen to its absolute peak. When asked what the term feminism actually is, the definition will vary based on the respondent. Ask an ordinary man, and the response would probably refer to women attacking or trying to over powering men, which has become a common misconception. In theoretical terms, “feminism” can be used to described as a movement for the equal rights and protection of women in economic, social, cultural and political aspects (Merriam Webster, 2016)
Attracts young women interested in empowerment but uninterested in social change and activism. Postcolonial Feminism: Rejection of colonial relationships, Argues for the deconstruction of power relationships and the inclusion of race within feminist analyses. Post Feminism: Emphasizes multiple forms of oppression, multiple definitions of feminism, and a shift beyond equality as the major goal of the feminist movement. Postmodern Feminism: the male or female binary is Criticised by arguing against this binary as the organizing force of society. Psychoanalytic Feminism: psychoanalysis is used as a tool of female liberation by revising certain patriarchal tenants, such as Freud’s view on mothering, Oedipal/Electra complex, penis envy, and female sexuality.
In the second wave, this image of feminism changed. Being a feminist was looked at by society as being a bitter, grumpy and “ugly” woman, who didn’t take care of her appearance. In the third wave, this changed again. The early nineties were the run-up to a new kind of feminism, originated in early 2000, called ‘lipstick feminism’. It were younger women rather than older ones who started this new image of what it meant to be a feminist.
The period of the late sixties onwards is seen to mark the resurgence in the prominence of the feminist movement. Feminism may refer to political, cultural or economic activism establishing change regarding socioeconomic or governmental gender issues. As Joanne Hollows argues, there is no standardised definition of ‘feminism,’ however believes it is clear that the revival of feminism in the sixties and seventies, also known as ‘second wave feminism’ “did not simply seek to explain the inequalities between men and women but to use this as a basis for change.” The feminist revival built up momentum following the recovery from the Second World War, and it is through an amalgamation of social and intellectual factors that revival was maintained