With the fast development of modern society, people suffer from stress from their family and work, so they start to seek ways to release their pressure in their lives. Moreover, people usually unconsciously sums up their own experience in positive views . In the essay “Immune To Reality” by Daniel Gilbert, he refers to the idea of “psychological immune system”, a tendency of human to adjust their negative perspective to another one, when people are suffering from wrenching setback. The tenacity of human psyche and its ability of self-protection make people form walls to protect themselves. Although some people use their walls unintentionally, they rely on those walls to protect themselves from adversity and to support these untrue beliefs.
One is to help the client notice the futility of previous controlling attempts (e.g., emotional avoidance). A second goal is to generate therapeutic contexts where willing to experience her struggles without the attempts of suppressing, distracting, or getting rid of them. The paradoxical effect of controlling strategies is discussed along with a metaphor, and the willingness to contact with her private events as an alternative are briefly introduced. In addition, session 8 and 9 are designed to help her discriminate contexts where controlling strategies work and where they do not work. Session 9 focuses on the discriminating training. Session 10 and 11 include "Acceptance as an alternative agenda". Session 10 consists of “willingness exercises” and “self-as-context”. The session consists of (a) ACT willingness exercises, and (b) a brief ACT experiential exercise. In the willingness exercises, Two Scales Metaphor is used to direct her attention from her psychological struggles to willingness to experience the struggles. A brief ACT Observer Exercise is provided to the client in order to enhance her willingness and to change the function (meanings) of her private experiences (thoughts, feelings, and memories). Session 11 continues the ACT willingness exercise. The session includes the overview of willingness and normalization of human struggles. Another metaphor is
According to the National Cancer Institute, about 40% of people will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in their life, and there were approximately 13,776,251 people living with cancer in 2012. Cancer is a common disease with many types and forms. The book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot shows the story of a woman with cervical cancer, and how her illness affected herself and her family. Although cancer affects a patient physically, it also has effects on the patient mentally and financially, as well as it challenges patients to change their lifestyles for the better.
Reading an autobiography can supply valuable information about a person by revealing their narrative of personal challenges and successes. Michael J Fox wrote an autobiography about his challenges, including life with Parkinson’s disease. He fought a hard battle with alcoholism, depression, and family turmoil before and during the midst of his Parkinson’s diagnosis. In the beginning, he solely found solace in the bathtub trying to forget about his malady. However, he became an advocate; by embracing his diagnosis through representing his diagnosis, he slowly healed from the past, revealing his true identity.
Failures and successes in life have led many people to believe that destiny plays a role in one's future life outcome. Some say destiny, the “hidden power believed to control what will happen in the future”, is unchangeable; fate has already decided how one will live their life. Although in some cases this may be true, one is able to change their destiny by the deeds and actions they commit during their lifetime.
Social model often ensures physical and mental health and broader sphere of participating in active life. The model permits most understated discrimination of people that succeed to lead productive lives irrespective of physical damage. The disadvantage of social model is the approach that runs the threat of excessive breadth and to incorporate all life. Therefore, they do not differentiate among the state to become healthy the concerns of being healthy neither do they differentiate among “health” and “health determinants”.
“Alzheimer’s” by Kelly Cherry was published in 1997 during a time of personal struggle for Cherry and her dad. This short, free verse poem consists of twenty nine perplexing lines. The poet’s nontraditional placement of line breaks cause some ideas to fall off in mid-sentence, while others never complete the thought. This creates enjambments which mimic the disease’s confusing nature. The speaker of this poem is the author, who is also the daughter of whom she writes about. Ideally, the writer narrates the poem in order to genuinely explain the turmoil loved ones face on a daily basis while dealing with this disease. The beginning of the poem creatively uses a simile to introduce us to “a crazy old man back
Care givers: caring for a family member or friend with a physical or mental illness can be stressful, exhausting, both mentally and physically, and creates a physical and psychological strain for the care giver over a period of time. The psychological well-being such as depression and stress, are frequent consequences of caregiving. The age, socioeconomic status, and the availability of informal support that caregivers have access to greatly affect their own health and well being.
Illness at a Metaphor by Susan Sontag discusses how metaphors complicate diseases or syndromes of multiple or unknown causes. Sontag says that the most truthful way to describe illnesses is without any influence of metaphors, to keep it as pure and scientific as possible (Sontag 3). However, metaphors are a part of everyday life and it is nearly impossible to escape the use of metaphors to describe illnesses.
The core assumptions of the Health Belief Model (HBM) are based on the premise that a person will develop a health behavior and is willing to take action to avoid the occurrence of the disease. Furthermore, the person needs to believe that they have the possibility of developing the disease, that they can avoid the disease, that the cost of the change outweighs the benefit and that the person can effectively implement the recommended behavior. Furthermore, the major concepts of the HBM are perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barriers, cues to action and self-efficacy (de Chesnay and Anderson, 2016, p. 155-156).
In the 1800’s, a cancer diagnosis was viewed as the equivalent of death (Holland, 2002). In this day and age, there was no known cause or cure, and it was considered inhumane to reveal the diagnosis to the patient. In a constantly changing and advancing society, this ideology was transformed as the result of an accumulation of technological advances, education, and research initiative. This led to the acceptance of the notion of cancer worldwide. As cancer continued to become more prevalent, health care providers and researchers were forced to further investigate the biology, development, and treatment of cancer. The interaction of cancer outside the realm of molecular and cellular biology became apparent in the mid 1900’s and has since found importance in the fields of psychology, neuropsychology, and psychosocial oncology (Holland, 2002).
The biopsychosocial model of health care allows medical practice to be understood completely in terms of biological, psychological and social factors. The model suggests that every illness can be explained and treated by an interaction between these three factors. The model was proposed by George L. Engel, the Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Rochester, where he challenged the previously prevailing medical model, called the biomedical model, and argued for the introduction of a biopsychosocial model. The biomedical model had viewed illness purely from a pathophysiological perspective, suggesting that every disease could be explained from a biological standpoint. It ignored a ‘mind-body connection’. Health however, is not simply limited to biology. “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity” as defined by the World Health Organisation.
However, according to the best-fitting model, the unconditional and conditional model were only slightly different. As both depression and anxiety symptoms has resilience, recovery and delayed, the only difference is that in the depression symptom model, there were chronic trajectory. But owing to the best-fitting model of anxiety, it did not include chronic trajectory because SCI patients may encounter chronic and lasting depression due to their injuries but anxiety response is more reactive to situational
Albrecht and Adelman’s study (as cited in Kendall Hunt Publishing Co., 2011) provided a definition of social support as “verbal and non-verbal communication between recipients and providers that reduces uncertainty about the situation, the self, the other, or the relationship, and functions to enhance a perception of personal control in one’s life experience”. Social support is any type of communication that helps an individual feel more secure or certain about a situation and therefore being able to feel that they have control over a situation (2011, Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.). According to Hunt, social support emphasizes the availability of the network of people that provides support, therefore, the presence