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Posthumans Foucault Summary

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2.5. THE CLIFF STORY Considering Fukuyama theory, the city designed for the posthumanism civilization. This city contains four main parts, which are: Laboratory, Factories, Posthumans’ Cliff, non-posthumans’ cliffs. The owners of the city are posthumans who live in the central cliff. This cliff has a luxury design and is the most advanced cliff in the city. Factories produce what people need for living. Laboratory is the place where posthuman scientists experiment on human genes. The other cliffs are for non-posthumans who are conditionally accepted to live in the city. Instead of supplying their basic necessities, posthumans use them as laboratory mice. It means they have chosen to live here and had access to the facilities by risk their…show more content…
Foucault says that, once we assume the idea of "author" as an individual creator, what do we think by "work". Foucault realized writing as interplay of signs arranged less according to its signified content than according to very nature of the signifier. As Foucault wrote: “that today’s writing has freed itself from the theme of expression”. He said that a writer's individuality is removed by writing, and with this idea he turned the literature into discourse because we see "author," as the function of language and become a part of the structure of texts. As he claimed: “Perhaps it is time to study discourses not only in terms of their expressive value or formal transformations but according to their modes of existence. The modes of circulation, valorization, attribution, and appropriation of discourses vary with each culture and are modified within each. The manner in which they are articulated according to social relationships can be more readily understood, I believe, in the activity of the author function and in its modifications than in the themes or concepts that discourses set in motion.” In celebrating the birth of discourse, Barthes claimed that the contemporary notion of the language is “neither an instrument nor a vehicle: it is a structure". According to him, “it is language which speaks, not the author: “to write is to reach, through a preexisting impersonality — never to be confused with the castrating objectivity of the realistic novelist — that point where language alone acts, “performs,” and not
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