The questions of the whether social inequality is justified and the extent of government to address said inequality are some of the foundations upon which societies and economies are built. Two key philosophers on this issue – John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau – differ on this subject. In Two Treatises on Government, Locke holds that individuals have a right to property derived from their labor, citizens consent to the existence of inequality in society, and governments are instituted among men to protect said property. In contrast, Rousseau writes in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and The Social Contract that inequality should be strictly limited and that governments have a duty to act in the best interest of its citizens by maintaining
Another factor that shows the difference between Athens and Han China are their types of government. Document 4 is a quote from Pericles, an Athenian leader. Pericles stated, “Our form of government is called a democracy because its administration is in the hands, not of a few, but of the whole peoples” (Doc 4). This quote here shows the main difference between Han China and Classical Athens. IN Athens, which upholds direct democracy, all free male citizens are entitled to vote, while in China, only the emperor and his advisors can.
Introduction The assignment will be investigating the democracy of Aristotle and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Democracy in itself can be very different and varies from form to form. The assignment will investigate Aristotle’s view and Jean Jacques Rousseau concepts on state and man, the governess of the state, freedom and man .Each of these topics will be contrast on the views of Aristotle and Jean Jacques Rousseau alongside each other. Each of these philosophers’ key points will be looked and the inner working of out they thought a city should be run. State and Man Aristotle in his book Politics explains that “every state is community of some kind and every community is established with a view to some good.” ( Aritso 1127).
Justice in opposite points of view Plato tries to describe what justice is in reality by the different characters ' points of view in his book “The Republic”. In “The Republic” the characters, such Socrates, Thrasymachus, Glaucon, Cephalus, Adeimantus, Polemarchus give their opinion about justice. The people in the Just city are divided into 3 groups: gold, silver and bronze that means ruler part, guardian part and labor part of citizens. Thrasymachus says that justice is the advantage of the stronger, but Socrates argues that justice is being honest and do own role in society. Firstly, the dialogue between Socrates and Thrasymachus starts with the question that justice is the interest of the stronger or not.
The five political principles that have shaped the United States government are known as Consent of the Governed, Limited Government, Rule of Law, Democracy, and Representative Government.The first political principle is called Consent of the Governed. Consent of the Governed means that the people run the government, so the people are allowed to kick someone out of office if they have enough votes, and if they believe the person is doing a bad job.The second principle is Limited Government. For example, the government is only allowed to do the things the people have given it the power to do. Rule of Law is the third political principle that has shaped our government. Rule of Law means that the nations laws are applied to everybody, and
How are Sparta and Athens different and similar to each other? These are the types of questions that allow us to understand the two cities politically. Althought Classical Athens was a democracy, not all citizens had the same rights and benefits. Women, slaves, and foreigners were not citizens, which leaves the males as the only individuals with citizenship. Having citizenship means not being excluded from politics and having the option of serving in the Assembly.
For example, Sparta had dual monarchs but also a direct democratic Assembly of Spartan citizens whose powers were limited because their agenda was set and decisions subject to veto by executive bodies, the most influential of which (the Gerousia) was populated by senior aristocrats (Brand, n.d.). Similarly, Macedonian governance also featured an Assembly – albeit weak - as well as monarchy. More importantly, the monarchs generally required aristocratic support in order to rule effectively (Martin,
Also, after the election, power have to be given to the successful candidates. On the other hand, Dahl also emphasize the importance of contestation. According to Dahl, all the citizens have to be able to express their dissatisfactions with politics without any fear of confinement or custody (Dahl, 1991) . There exists many types of democracy in the world. Many scholars differentiate them in relation to its representative government, the institutional balance of power, and the electoral procedure.
In the Authoritarian style of government on the other hand, has many benefits, advantages and like any other type of government, has its own disadvantages and weaknesses. I remember in our previous discussions, we talked about Hobbes’ state of nature which states that a person is naturally selfish and that without a government, there would be total chaos so in result, man agrees to be a part of a government. In this sense, man would agree to be under that government and would agree to be served. It is not assured that there would not be chaos if one joins a government but through this form of government, war would be lessened – and it could be render void. Under this type of government, there are benefits and advantages as well as restrictions.
Rawls believed that everyone in society should have had equal political rights, although social and economic inequalities existed, but only under the condition that they were to the maximum advantage of the least advantaged people in society. On the other hand, while philosopher Robert Nozick paid a generous tribute to the brilliance of Rawls’ philosophical construction, he provides a rejection to Rawls’ claims from a libertarian perspective. Libertarians have the desire to divide and limit power. That is, government will be limited generally through a written constitution limiting the powers that the people delegate to government (Boaz, 2015). Nozick stated that Rawls’ idea would have resulted in the restriction of free choice or forced distribution within the society.