How the oceans may die is crucial to understand in order for them to be preserved for the survival of the planet. Numerous human activities generate a staggering amount of grave complications for the oceans and its crucial marine life. One of the most direct human activities that causes rapid decline in marine populations is overfishing. Some of the species
These habitats are characterized by high bacterial and archaeal diversity (Kelley et al., 2002), but the factors shaping community structure and composition are often not well understood, as diffuse venting sites are far less studied than plume and chimney habitats (Campbell et al., 2013). The wide, extensive plumes typical of black smoker vents contain chemicals that can either sink back to the ocean floor and become hydrothermal sediment or be scavenged by microbial communities living within the plumes (Kelley et al., 2002; Tivey, 2007). Generally, hydrothermal plumes are characterized by near ambient sea-water temperatures and low nutrient concentrations (Kelley et al., 2002) but they contain distinct regions (e.g., the rising plume and neutrally buoyant plume) with steep physical and chemical gradients that define distinct microbial communities (Dick et al., 2013). Microbial communities within plumes are generally derived from 3 sources (fig 1.3): (1) seafloor communities that are transported upwards, (2) background deep-sea water communities and (3) microbes that grow within the plume. The latter category shapes the plume community most, as these microbes both utilize the hydrothermally sourced electron donors for chemosynthesis, and consume the organic carbon produced in a
Ocean water does not kill someone because it has a different pH, or that there are different microbes in the ocean than pond water, it is because of an abundant mineral that one’s body uses quite regularly: Salt. Human beings cannot drink salt water because the change in salt concentration in the blood stream will damage the cells and eventually lead to death. Cells in the body maintain constant equilibriums with the surrounding matrix. Changes in these equilibriums happen constantly, and the body is almost always adept at compensating for these shifts. For example: when there is an influx in pH of the blood stream, the body has a natural
Focusing on certain natural phenomena with explanation based on experiment data, natural sciences clearly explain the cause of marine contamination problems. Whereas social sciences use social theories and focus more on broader issues like social phenomena which do not explain clearly about contamination. It is important to do deep research because contamination in water especially in marine ecosystem is a very complex problem. Similar example is from tsunami disaster in Japan in 2011, radioactive which contaminated marine ecosystem is able to enter food chain and to accumulate in animal bodies. If human being consumes these contaminated organisms, toxic compound will be accumulated in human body.
By talking about actions (or organisms) like invasive species, climate change, CO2 emissions, and habitat fragmentation, Kolbert argues that these heavily human driven deeds are causing a negative impact on the species around us. Due to these occurrences and many more, humans have put the Earth in a dangerous position. Thankfully, there are actions that can be taken to save our planet, but we need to get started now. These actions lead up to very extreme, which includes tampering with our atmosphere or even building new civilizations on other planets or the moon. However crazy these actions may seem, it's unreal to think that us humans have caused the problem that is leading to these drastic
It is estimated that pH will continue to drop till 0.3 to 0.4 by 2100. (Jackson 2010) BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION: Ocean acidification has many harmful impacts on living organisms. Ocean acicdifcation changes the ocean chemistry and this can disrupt the entire marine food web. It affects the life of organisms inside the water in a variety of ways. Few impacts of ocean acidification of different organisms are discussed briefly below.
Thirdly, the ocean and its inhabitants are greatly affected by marine pollution. Marine pollution is the entrance of hazardous materials into the ocean. The ocean can be polluted a number of ways, including garbage, sewage, and noise. Garbage pollutes the ocean by disturbing marine life and tarnishing the marine environment, it can also damage ships. Sewage pollutes by adding dangerous chemicals to the ocean and depleting oxygen used by the animals.
When pH is high which means more OH⁻, then aluminum ions will react with hydroxide ions to form aluminum hydroxide. Phosphate ions are acting as a natural buffer. If the equipment is not washed with acid, it would cause an error. This is because the phosphorus analyzing is dealing with low concentration of phosphorus and it is easily contaminated by detergent and other chemicals and it has to be washed by using an acid and also it has to be rinsed with distilled water once it is rinsed with acid. Also refer to section 4 (discussion).
Pollution from coal-fired power plants is released as fly ash, bottom ash and waste gases. Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the key pollutants in the formation of acid rain. Acid rain acidifies water bodies and harms forests and coastal ecosystems. Coal-fired power plant is the largest single source of atmospheric mercury emissions which is toxic to the developing brain, and exposure in the womb can cause health problems in children. Mercury released in the air gets into the waterways and is accumulated in fishes which are consumed by humans.
Dispersants cause the oil to break up into smaller droplets, which become miscible in water. However, these dispersants may result in more ecological harm than good. The chemicals contain nonbiodegradable toxins that can kill fish and migrate great distances. Dispersants also are blamed for the massive oil plumes several hundreds of feet underwater, harmful to all aquatic life, especially fish larvae and filter feeders. Moreover, because of the large volume of oil that has been spilled, the amount of dispersant required and the amount of oil dispersed simply suppresses the problem, rather than solving
Ocean acidification is killing off the oyster population, which is also affecting the jobs in Washington. Initially, ocean acidification is when acidic gases are emitted into the air and absorbed into the ocean. According to the video Ocean Acidification by NOAA, ¼ of all the carbon dioxide release into the air is absorbed into the oceans. Some major contributors to carbon emissions are automobile gas and factory emissions. This is a problem in the Pacific Northwest because acid sinks to the bottom, but Pacific winds bring acidic water up from the bottom near the shore by the shellfish.
Researchers that are studying the origins of earth’s first breathable atmosphere have zeroed in on the major role played by the most unassuming creature: plankton. They believed 500 million years ago the earth’s crust contained upheavals [a violent, sudden change or a disruption]. This initiated a strange reverse green house effect, cooling the world’s oceans, spawned giant plankton and sent bursts of oxygen into the atmosphere. This new discovery reveals details of how oxygen came to vanish from the earth’s ancient atmosphere during the Cambrian period and reappeared in higher levels than ever before. Plankton maybe at the bottom of the food chain today but back then they ruled the planet.
Around 150 years ago, humans started releasing fossil fuels into the atmosphere during the industrial revolution. The ocean takes up a quarter of the gas that surrounds earth by absorbing the CO2 we put in our atmosphere. Scientist thought the ocean was a great resource for getting rid of these CO2 gases in the atmosphere; however, they didn’t know how much these gases where destroying our great ocean. NOVA’s documentary presents, Lethal Seas, a documentary of the destruction of our vast ocean, concentrating on the American northwest coast, Papua New Guinea among the volcanic islands of Milne Bay, and Aurora Australis. The documentary dresses the issue of rising acidity levels in the ocean and its effects.
Pollutants from factories, cars, boats, and litter are all the things humans use to pollute the bay. The bay contains a high amount of phosphorus and nitrogen. Phosphorus and nitrogen are needed for organisms and plants to be able to survive. However, an excess amount of phosphorus and nitrogen degrade the quality of Chesapeake bays water. Phosphorus and nitrogen feed algae blooms that block sunlight to the underwater bay grass and leaving a low supply of oxygen in the water.