The Skin Integumentary System

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Skin word arrives from Latin word cutis. It is the peripheral covering of vertebrates and the largest organ of the body with almost 20 square feet area. Skin is mainly comprise of epithelial, mesenchymal, glandular and neurovascular components. It protects us from microbes as first line of defense, helps to maintain homeostasis and allows the sensation of touch, heat and cold.
Skin is called as integumentary system of three layers as following:
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
3. Hypodermis
1.2.1. Epidermis
It is the upper layer which provides waterproof barrier and creates color tone because of the presence of melanocytes, which produce melanin pigment. 95% of epidermis is consist of Keratinocytes, which are characterized by cytokeratin
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Stratum Lucidum
III. Stratum Granulosum
IV. Stratum Spinosum
V. Stratum Basale

1.2.2. Dermis
It is middle layer which contain connective tissue, sweat gland, hair follicles, collagen, blood vessels, nerves and various glands. Function of dermis layer is to provide strength, elasticity and to cushion the body stress and strain. In case of any injury, there are different tissues present in this layer i.e. granulation tissue which are used to heal wounds. It has two layers which are as follows:
I. A thick papillary layer
II. A thin reticular layer
1.2.3. Hypodermis
It is deeper subcutaneous layer which is made up of connected groups of adipocytes and connective tissues. Hypodermis is distributed all over the body mainly on abdominal belt, thighs, on hips and below the waist. Hypodermal fat act as heat insulator in body. Highly vascular drugs such as insulin is administered this layer because it is highly absorptive.
1.3. Melanin
Melanin is present in both epidermal and dermal layer of skin. It is formed in small membrane stacks called melanocytes. Color of skin is determined by epidermal melanin. It is formed by oxidation and cyclization of Tyrosine. Those persons which has higher amount of melanin has reduced chances of
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