Similarly, this theory gave me insight to explore the aims of this study. By using this theory, I saw whether the students influence by teachers ' nonverbal behaviors or not. Furthermore, this theory provided students to learn through observation and modelling of the teacher wich supported me explore teachers ' nonverbal behaviors, students ' perceptions towards nonverbal behaviors and how do they influence learning English. Hence, Social Cognitive Theory provided major theoritical foundation for
In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life. In contrast, social reinforcement is the actual initiation of the anticipated behavior through the influence of material and valuable rewards that is present in the society. The final concept of social learning theory may motivate individuals to commit violations or deviant acts in the same direction of definitions. Differential reinforcement discussed the influence of rewards and punishments in developing and learning deviant behaviors
Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives. These theories give insight to the differences, yet also the links in learning, particularly in relation to how children gain their learning, and how their behavior may be affected. The learning theories presented; Behaviorism and Constructivism originated from two deep thinking schools of thought, which has lead to influence educators’ view in learning and teaching. Two of the major advocates of behaviorism were Skinner and Watson. They explored how children’s learning could be affected by changes in the environment that they learn in, and attempted to prove that children’s
Active learning is a set of strategies that motivates students to learn by their own with the help of Knowledgeable others. The following examples of active learning are being used in this study; discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning, and inquiry-based instruction, think-pair-share, quick-writes, polling, cooperative learning, and student presentations. Another theory for which this study is also anchored is attributed to Frederick Herzberg the Motivation Theory. It is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. Motivated learners can learn almost everything.
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.2.1 Social learning theory This a theory postulated by Albert Bandura, the theory suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviors of others. This theory acknowledges that human beings are capable of cognition or thinking and that they can benefit from observation and experience. Social learning theory recognizes that much of human learning takes place through watching other people model various behaviors. Social learning focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers how people learn from one another, encompassing such concepts as observational learning, imitation and modelling (McLeod, 2011).
If one was physically disciplined, there is a strong chance that one would end up disciplining one’s child in the same manner. Physical disciplinary actions only results in negative outcomes. When physical discipline is present in a child’s life, self-esteem issues and/or violent behaviour are sure to follow. There are alternatives to corporal punishment that can help with the disciplining of a child. Spanking is a euphemism for physical abuse or assault on an adolescent.
Bullying has several cases that happen nowadays. Why do you consider bullying takes place everywhere? Is insecurity a reason why people treat others in an aggressive way? Why do people become bullies? Insecurity is done by people also the other says that insecurity is the reason why young adults become bullies, however, there are several factors to prove that being insecure can lead to bullying.
In his theory, Bandura assumes that people learn from one another, via observation, and imitation and modeling. The reciprocal determinism not only posits that people learn from others through others’ behaviors, attitudes and outcomes of those behaviors, but it also indicates the interacting mutual influences of the person, the environment and the behavior. According to reciprocal determinism, the environment affects the person and the behavior; the person also affects the environment and the behavior; also the behavior affects the other two. Observation learning and is the process influencing learning,
In addition to that, Bandura’s studies on observational learning were mainly focused on children. The usage of children could affect the ethics of the study as children are usually unaware that they have the right to withdraw from the study. The children in Bandura’s study in 1961 and 1965 were exposed to aggressive models and this could have been harmful to them mentally and
The child’s development of anti-social behavior may possibly occur.Lowering of self-esteem can be a factor leading to a child’s perception that he/she is a bad person. Punishment involves a negative experience for the child that occurs after they have done a certain action, which the adult condemns. (Lodhi, M.S., &Siddiqui, J.A.,