The behaviour we observed is models. In social life, children encompassed with effective people like parents, siblings, friends, tv characters and teachers etc. They attract to certain people and encode the behaviour and later imitate the behaviour interest to them regardless whether it is appropriate or inappropriate for them. MEDITATIONAL PROCESS: it is referred as a bridge between traditional learning theory and cognitive approach. Bandura believes that individuals are effective "informative processors" and always anticipate the connection between their behaviour and its outcome and such factor involved in the learning process to evaluate if the new response is accomplished.
In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life. In contrast, social reinforcement is the actual initiation of the anticipated behavior through the influence of material and valuable rewards that is present in the society. The final concept of social learning theory may motivate individuals to commit violations or deviant acts in the same direction of definitions. Differential reinforcement discussed the influence of rewards and punishments in developing and learning deviant behaviors (Akers
The main contribution of the theory, though, is the realization of the possible relationship between criminal behavior or inclinations towards it and flaw in the childhood’s relationships or experience that are related or not to the parents (Sammons, n.d.) The behavioral theory, on the other hand, first explained by Gabriel Tarde, is being utilized in a way that focuses on the behavior modeling and social learning (Psychological theories of crime, n.d.). A major common characteristic of criminals is that they are more likely to be insane, exhibit poor social behavior and be unintelligent. The behavioral theory defines that individuals learn from each other and eventually imitate one another. In particular, relevant to the criminology field is the social learning theory (Psychological theories of crime, n.d.) One of the scientists in that area, Albert Bandura claims that individuals are not born to act violently, but rather they learn that behavior later in life, through family interaction, environmental experiences, and mass
Due to stereotyping, the minority groups of adolescents are going through negative consequences such as depression and anxiety; self-esteem issues; substance abuse; and interruption of daily activities. Losing the confidence, and accepting that the majority groups are superior over them will lead to continuation of the stereotyping among minority groups of adolescents. The minority groups of adolescents have to find a way to successfully avoid the stereotyping matters in order to overcome the negative psychological and physiological consequences that affect their
With that in mind, I am going to define, and explore different aspects of child abuse with some modern examples. Some people believe that physical punishments can be degrading and negatively affect the mental health of the child compared to those who think it teaches discipline and how to respect others without any significant damage to the child 's psyche. Oklahoma law states that acceptable punishment is when “Parents/other
The long terms effects of bullying can be damaging to a child or adolescent. Children who learn they are able to get away with aggression and violence will continue to do so in adulthood (“What are the Effects of Bullying?”). Long term effects of bullying include: difficulty in putting trust in others, self-esteem issues, increased tendency to want to be alone, and seeing one’s self as being victimized, thin-skinned, and overly sensitive (“The Long Term Effects of Bullying”). Children who bully or even children that are bullied can be aggressive towards their spouse or child in adulthood (“Effects of Bullying”). Those who bully are more likely to have convictions and violations as adults (“Effects of Bullying”).
Many are the result of unresolved childhood abuse issues. The reasons are complex, yet for some survivors ongoing internal disorder keeps the foundation of the establishment of regularity, predictability and consistency. Numerous survivors live in 'crisis mode', reacting with provisional fixes to circumstances that don't resolve the fundamental issues. This can be exhausting and frustrating and add to sentiments of vulnerability and sadness. (Impact of Child Abuse, n.d.) Repeated exposure to stressful events can influence the brains stress reaction, making it oversensitive and less adaptive.
Social Learning Theory Social learning theory differs from Skinner’s learning theory as it recognises the importance of cognition as Albert Bandura believed that we aren’t ‘passive’ learners or accidental learners, we use mental processes to select what we imitate and watch. Social learning theory proposes that we learn through different types of ways which allow us to learn how to behave, the proposals are that we learn through observation as we observe the people around us when they behave in various ways, we learn through modelling or imitation as we think about the relationship between other people’s behaviour and the consequence that it brings, and we also learn through both direct and indirect reinforcement. Effects of other individuals
When one touches a child inappropriately, it is considered as sexual abuse. Also, it can bring about bad effects on a child. They include behavior problems, injuries, or problems in school. Sexual abuse can be prevented by professional organization and keeping victim child far away from the
Factors like maltreatment in childhood, neighbourhood disadvantage and poor monitoring in adolescents need to be scrutinized in this research. A childhood with trauma and even poor parenting can contribute towards the onset of criminal behaviour in a child or adolescent. A child’s relationship with his/her parents can be a deciding factor which can shape the future of a child. The issue of juvenile delinquency has been plaguing the society since a long time. We need to understand the underlying factors which transform innocent young people into criminal offenders.