Two of these health models are the biomedical and the psychosocial models. These models can be examined to understand their assumptions, how they are affected by the leading causes of death, how they relate to research, their aspects during diagnosis and treatment, and their strengths and weaknesses. Assumptions of the Models The biomedical approach is centered around the absence of a disease as the definition of health (Gurung, 2014)). This model has a strong emphasis on the biological mechanisms of disease, while assuming that the psychological and social aspects of the patient are unimportant factors in both understanding and treating patients (Lane, 2014).
An essential part of modern society relied on trust, especially the trust of doctors and scientists. People had the right to make an informed decision about their bodies and body parts. People had a right to their body parts, both attached and cell samples collected by doctors. The actions that the medical professions made will continue to affect future generations in both positive and negative ways. In the contemporary biographical novel, the Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Rebecca Skloot used logical opinions to argue about the importance of consent to reveal the lack of morality from those in the medical field which continues to persist today.
Medicalization can be described as being the way non-medical problems have become defined as medical, usually in terms of illness. “Since the 1970’s, sociologists have expressed concern about the medicalization of society, that is, the way in which everyday aspects of life such as death, birth, eating, drinking, sleeping, and so on have come under the jurisdiction of medicine”, (Hyde & McDonnell, 2004). Although the term medicalization is not a newly discovered phenomenon, it is only in recent decades that sociologists have intricately examined and studied the subject. Irving Kenneth Zola, for example, argued that medicine has “attached itself to anything to which the label of illness may be associated, irrespective of whether or not it
The biomedical model focuses on the biological aspects of disease and illness. It is practised by health professionals including doctors and is related with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease. The biomedical model suggests that health is seen as being in the absence of disease. It states that health professionals are needed in order to cure illnesses and the primary purpose of health services such as the NHS is to cure illnesses.
Population health is a field which includes health outcomes, patterns of health determinants and policies and interventions that link these two (Kindig & Stoddart, 2003). More recently, the National Academy of Medicine defined population health as an approach that treats the population as a whole (including the environmental and community contexts) as the patient (NACNEP, 2016). Allied health professionals relate to population health through the understanding of the increased demand to serve the population rather than only the individual. The three most critical areas to better serve the health of the population as allied health professionals include 1) viewing the population’s health as a whole, versus as individuals, 2) to emphasize the need to practice quality improvement and patient safety in all instances when a medical decision is made, and 3) take into consideration all sub-populations when judging the health of an entire population. To shift from individual patient care, based on active symptoms, is the current practice of most healthcare professionals.
Since 1993, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) measures quality of life in various research and program planning activities. They look at four core questions known as “Healthy Days Measures,” that are useful for determining the health-related quality of a patient’s life following a medial event. In contrast, a number of studies cited below found other instruments more useful than the CDC measure. Information on the CDC measure helped establish my finding that measuring quality of life for trauma patients following trauma center discharge is needed.
Over the centuries, the health care system in Europe has underwent significant modification. From a “simple system of home remedies and itinerant doctors with little training”, the health care system in Europe has evolved to a complex system that is fostered by “medical science and technology and the authority of medical professionals”. Additionally, emphasis on aspects like epidemiology and prevention were also observed. There were several factors which helped stage for this evolution of modern health care system. In particular was the ground-breaking discovery of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796 which eventually acted as a basis for present-day immunology.
Adewale Troutman stated that he advocates “individual responsibility, but always within the context of social determinants” linking the two thoughts together. Fundamentally, he is saying that it is up to one to make their health within the means they have. There are aspects of life that people have no control over or don’t have the resources to fix, but there are still ways they can improve their health. Social determinants are conditions that people grow, work, live, age and the factors that shape their daily lives.
he last decades of the twentieth century witnessed the emergence and consolidation of a set of core ethical principles felt to be critical to medical research, and the practice of medicine. Despite the U.S. Supreme Court’s rulings in favor of mandatory vaccination requirements, during much of the 20th Century, states and counties relied more on persuasion, to achieve compliance with vaccination requirements. The problem: autonomy of the individual. Mandatory vaccination of health care workers raises important questions about the limits of a state's power to compel individuals to engage in particular activities in order to protect the public.
Consequentialism is based more around the consequence and final result of the actions. In our text book, Ethical Reasoning, it states that in consequentialism, “consequences count, not motives or intentions” (Pence, 2011). Non-consequentialism is based around the intention of one’s doing, regardless of the consequences. A particular action may be good for a business but not good for society or ones health. An example of this would be pharmaceutical companies raising the cost for medicine, this cause many patients to suffer or not be able to afford the medication they need.
Week 3: Objective 3-Analyze the literature search of a selected topic (Continued). This week I focused my research on obstacles present, in our current healthcare system, which may inhibit the implementation of holistic care practices. Unfortunately, I believe in order to effectively incorporate holistic practices understanding of their importance, in caring for the whole individual, will require a new mind-set from the “top down” within medical facilities.
Researchers used nursing theories to help guide research on complicated phenomena(Connelly, 2014). After reviewing evidences collected on the topic "Antibiotic therapy and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)", the most common theories that have been cited are, exposure to antibiotic, especiallyin patients that have been previously diagnosed with bacterial infections(respiratory, urinary and osteoarticular infections) are significanly at risk for acquiring CDI and theory for prevention cited was implementation of an Antibiotic stewardship program. Inaddition,hand hygiene, contact precaution and environmental cleaning protocols where other interventions listed. Concept Definitions Exposure to antibiotic- is operationally defined as the last time within 30 days a hospitalized patients received antibiotic therapy before the current hospital
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis; Lovenox vs Heparin On June 30, 2011, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) presented their final ruling on non-payment policies for provider preventable conditions (PPCs). One of the other provider preventable conditions includes the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in any health care setting (Federal Register, 2011, p. 32817). Due to the significant cost of providing care for preventable conditions that are now not reimbursed through the CMS and many health insurance companies, hospitals around the country have implemented new policies to ensure patients remain free of venous blood clots during their hospital stay. The practice of injecting either Lovenox or heparin
Medical Dominance Medical dominance is an ideology that a certain group or profession, in this case, doctors have a dominance or are at the top of the hierarchal system of the medical field. Medical dominance came about in the formation of the American Medical Association (AMA) when allopathic doctor began to gain power through legislation. This was fairly easy for them because many of the people were white, men from upper class families and had the money to pay lobbyist and were the right gender and race for them to be easily trusted (Weitz, 1996). This power or dominance has affected the treatment of patients and created a medical dominance occupationally.
Discourses have far reaching effect on how we as humans discuss and experience our bodies. The discourse of normalcy has produced a socially constructed body that either fits or deviates from the socially constructed norm. This results in categorization and stigmatization of individuals based on whether they have more “normal” or “abnormal” traits. Normalcy causes people to continually and meticulously analyze their body, producing discomfort and desire to change. The discourse of gender tightly regulates how and when males and females discuss their bodies.