In the Eighteenth century, a huge change happened to the decisions of language as it increasingly fell under the specialization of lexicographers. On the other hand, grammarians continued to focus on grammar-related material and lexicographers developed more comprehensive dictionaries. “Johnson was able to write his monumental Dictionary of 1755 because he made use of several techniques grammarians had used in grammar texts, such as incorporating usage notes, making decision on correctness, illustrating meanings with quotations, and even attempting witticisms. Johnson’s ability to use the most successful techniques of grammarians, as well as lexicographers, helped to shift language authority to lexicographers.” (Seargeant and Swann,
The wide range of borrowings has produced a rich store of synonyms from different linguistic sources for example: royal, regal and kingly. English has extensive resources like elegant or academic, everyday, both concrete and abstract etc to satisfy every kind of users and different goals. But when it comes to talk about writing in Middle English it is obvious that the use of English in written documents was overly reduced. English was no longer the dominant language for government and law, so the tendency toward standardization for Anglo-Saxon writing was basically stopped in its paths. There was some English still written, but far less than before.
Melvin Bragg posed a question about whether the British English language was ever influenced by other countries, as well as their languages, at the end episode 7 in his Adventure in English series. British English, the more formal language used by Great Britain, has been highly used and influenced by the native languages of countries like India, Wales, and Australia. The English language was forced upon these countries when they were ruled by England, but once these countries received their independence they attempted to revert back to their original languages. They all attempted to do this by reverting back to their original languages, but not without adding new English words to their vocabulary. However, the reverse is also true.
The third stage is codification which is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language codifying a language could be different from case to another and it depend on the stage of standardization that exists, it means to develop a writing system, pronunciation, syntax, set up official rules of grammar, orthography and vocabulary as well as publishing grammar books and dictionaries. The codification of English took its place by the 16th century , by public ate dictionaries and grammar books , most of them aims to teach the new English language to rural squires and to the welsh especially after the act of union between England and Walsh in 1536 . By the 16th and 17th century the writers start to write a Standard English codification affected the spoken form of the standard language. for example , received pronunciation " RB " was codified by the influence of education , especially in the 19th century public schools , then from the early 20th century by radio , cinema , and television (BBC English) . The codification of pronunciation stage started in the end of the 18th century, when elocutionists like Thomas Sheridan and John Walker produced understandable guides to correct pronunciation in the form of pronouncing dictionaries.
It is important to see how the emergence of DA as a discipline in linguistics. DA grew out of work in different disciplines in the 1969s and early 1970s, including linguistics, semiotics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology (McCarthy, 1991, p. 5). Dijk (1985, p. 1) indeed states that DA is both an old and new discipline. Its origin can be traced back to the study of language, public speech, and literature more than 2000 years ago. It was started when Sellig Harris published a paper with the title DA, in which he was interested in the distribution of linguistic elements in extended texts.
This paper looks at the aspects of a lingua franca and its role in societies. Also, the adaptation of other languages’ vocabulary and usage into the English language, and how English has impacted vocabulary and grammar structures on other languages. Furthermore, it talks about the effects on minority languages due to the continuous spread and dominance of English. Later, it touches upon some positive aspects that it has brought into modern day life across the globe. English as a Lingua Franca Over centuries, the English language has evolved from the roots of other ancient languages including: Latin, the Germanic languages, French, even Greek.
These norms and rules have to be formulated and set down definitively in grammars, dictionaries, spellers, manuals of styles, texts and so. (3) There is an important document of codification which is the dictionary of Dr Johnson 1755. Before Dr Johnson’s dictionary, dictionaries contained hard word explanations, also the bilingual dictionaries were to hard to be understood and did not record the ordinary English words. Writing systems and alphabets in England In the past, English alphabetic writing system was based originally on the Roman alphabet. The Roman alphabet was brought to England by Christian missionaries and church in the 6th
The codification of English language English language is one of most famous languages in the world, but when it's start and how it's standardization and codification, we need to back in time in 450 AD which English language was not the language of England, Celtic was original language , but in early modern English (1450 -1750c) that was the time which English became national language, and the renaissance start, Shakespeare and literature have shown (Seargeant& Swann 50-51), in 1966 Haugen told us in his model that standardization of English language begin first selection, then codification also elaboration and implementation, but we will focus on second part of standardization that it's codification(68-69), we can define the codification as process aim to write grammars book and dictionaries to protect the language, generally it's focus in the general knowledge (Jetter& Kraaijenbran& Schroder& Wijnhoven 77) . Before we go to the codification of English language we need to
Indian literature in English originated as a necessary result of the introduction of English education in India under the colonial law. In recent years it -Dhavan R.K. is of the opinion that- It is now recognized has attracted widespread interest, both in India and abroad.1 (Dhavan: 1986, 5) Indian literature in English is not only part of Commonwealth literature, but also occupies a Great significance into the World literature.2 (Dhavan: 1986, 5) Today, innumerable Indian English writers have contributed significantly to modern English literature. Ram Mohan Roy who heralded the Indian Renaissance and Macaulay who suggested English in Indian educational system were probably aware of what was in amass for the Indians in terms of literary
INTRODUCTION The English language has gone through tremendous development to reach where it is today. The development changes exists in seven critical stages. However, it is the transition phase between the seventeenth century and eighteenth century that has generated many public debates, because, as some scholars of English language put, it represents the transition of the tongue from the guidance of grammarians to the leadership of lexicographers. One such scholar is Mitchel who claims that while grammarians were the guardians of the English language in the seventeenth century, in the eighteenth century, it shifted to lexicographers. In this essay, therefore, I intend to critically evaluate Mitchell’s claim by comparing it with Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary.