The Stanford Prison Experiment was conceived by Phillip Zimbardo with the aim of the Experiment being to observe and analyse the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or a prison guard. The experiment was funded by the United States Office of Naval Research who wanted to study anti-social behaviour 24 individuals were chosen for the experiment, all of them college age males (The story: An overview of the experiment, 1999). The individuals were assigned the role of prisoner or guard at random. With the aid of a consultant, the basement of Stanford University was converted into a realistic prison environment, with multiple cells, a solitary confinement chamber and a two way intercom, allowing guards to listen in on what the prisoners were saying. The prisoners were arrested without consent and subject to standard police procedure, being fingerprinted and then blindfolded and brought to the simulation prison.
The differential perception of the same situation "the prison experience" from people who are initially comparable (from the same population) but arbitrarily assigned to play different roles.” Purpose: “A simulated prison will be established somewhere in the vicinity of Palo Alto, Stanford, to study a number of problems of psychological and sociological relevance.” Taken from: http://pdf.prisonexp.org/geninfo.pdf Participants: Educated, male, American university students, with no prior psychological issues. Procedure: Convert the basement of the Stanford Psychology Department into a mock jail center, where barred windows and doors had been put into place, making the simulation of prison as real as possible, with one “solidarity” room for misbehaving prisoners. Advertise the experiment to look for volunteers. Once applications arrived, Zimbardo conducted several psychological tests on the volunteers to minimize the differences between the participants as well as screen for potential psychological differences (sadism, etc.) Randomly allocate the role of guards and prisoners by a toss of the coin.
This essay of Fall and Rise of Theothus Carter will discuss about two articles that mainly talks to us about the prison life of prisoners and what they are missing from everyday life. Justin Wolfers article “1.5 million black men missing from everyday life” discusses about how many blacks are trapped inside prison and what their captivity has affected the nation. In addition, Eugene Robinson’s article “Disintegration” will discuss about the disintegration that many people has caused amongst the blacks and what the society sees them as. The hardships throughout in life of a prisoner that we will be talking about is Theothus Carter from Nick Paumgarten’s article “A Prison film made in Prison” who’s greatest gift/talent is acting and may have a chance to improve his life and change the perspective of people’s thinking towards prisoners. In Nick Paumgarten’s article “A Prison film made in prison”, story of Theothus Carter starts as a downfall for him.
The power given to prison guards over prisoners can puts prison guards in the position to become evil. A great example of prison guards turning evil is seen through the Stanford Prison Experiment. This experiment was conducted using normal mentally stable volunteers and assigned them to be either a prisoner or a prison guard. The roles were selected at random. Once the people who were assigned as guards received the power in the prison, they began to perform humiliating acts towards the prisoners; humiliating acts such as striping the prisoners naked and other sexually graphic acts.
The world is revolved around Social Constructionism, every day human beings give meaning to worthless things that otherwise wouldn 't matter if humans didn 't give it meaning through social agreement. The nation is an example of social constructionism because if the human society did not exist Americans would not have the government and money system they have now. The film The Stanford Prison Experiment has social constructionism throughout the film and it shows the viewer that the social construction of prisons systems can cause mental trauma to individuals within the jail cells. Social Constructionism theory originated from Berge and Luckmann 's book The Social Construction of Reality in 1967. It observes how the interactions of individuals with their society and the world around them gives meaning to otherwise worthless things to create the reality of the society (Brown, Sydney).
This is done by providing the audience with an occasional break in format, to either give an opinion or thought on something. These kinds of breaks are seen most explicitly in “The Stanford Prison Experiment.” An example of this can be seen when Zimbardo is recounting the 2nd day uprising from the prisoners, stating: "Because the first day passed without incident, we were surprised and totally unprepared for the rebellion that broke out in the morning of the second day" (Zimbardo 110) By giving his own reactions, Zimbardo illustrates to the readers what his thoughts were when these events were transpiring. If Zimbardo had, alternatively, chose to smoothly segue from one day to the next, the audience would miss out on gaining this new dimension, specifically of what the author thinks. These kinds of authorial interjections make sense in Zimbardo's case, as his audience has already been adjusted to his less formal way of writing, but when these same kinds of asides happen in Milgram’s article, they take a on different
Prisonization, according to Harer (1994) as quoted in Contardo (2008) is the “process by which prisoners become alienated from prison rules, staff, and the larger society”. A large contributor to the process of prisonization is Gesham Sykes theory of deprivation. During his study he found
Mental health is an important issue within the criminal justice and prison systems as it disproportionately affects those who are imprisoned. Stohr and Walsh (2012) suggest one factor that has contributed to the growing number of mental health issues within the prison population in America where government attempted to move towards half way houses and outpatient facilities instead of mental health hospitals. Yet failures to this deinstitutionalisation movement led to jails and prisons becoming the go to places for mental health patients. The situation in UK prisons is similar as mental disorder was found in 37% of sentenced male prisoners, 63% of men on remand, 57% of sentenced women prisoners and 76% of women remand prisoners (Birmingham,
In the experiment “prisoners” were kept in a basement hallway with no windows or ability to keep track of time. Biologically, we as humans need the sunlight not just for knowing how much time has passed but for its nutritional value as well. The “prisoners” were also stripped of comforts that would have been provided in a real prison, such as cigarettes and a decent sleep schedule. Real prisoners although kept in a less than ideal living situation still have the advantages of some personal comforts like clocks, windows and yard time. The “prisoners” in the experiment have to deal with poor sleeping conditions, physical and verbal abuse and ruthless guards, while in a real prison, prisoners experience similar but more extreme conditions.
First of all, it is important to understand that along with the question of utility of animal experiments, there is a question of morality. From their point of view, the use of animals in experiments is immoral and inhumane since the results are meant to benefit human beings for the most part. Also, some experiments are harmful and painful for the animals involved. For example, burning, cutting animals’ tails and ears off, poisoning, testing chemicals on them, and other severe practices are done in laboratories, as mentioned in Marinescu and Coman’s article (2010). Additionally, researchers in a lab at the University of Connecticut were drilling holes in monkeys’ heads as a part of their experiment.