CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Shewhart’s Statistical Process Control Chart is One of the most commonly used tools in the area of Quality Control. These control charts are used more than past eighty years. These charts are used and added much popularity because of its easiness and efficiency. But, a noteworthy limitation to these traditional control charts is that these charts can be used only for univariate data. Therefore, the processes determined by multivariate data are not be monitored efficiently.
• This structured discipline provides a thorough evaluation of the product and process. • Control plan identify process characteristics and help to identify their sources of variation (input variables), which cause variation in product characteristics (output variables). 9.7. WIS (Work Instruction sheet) – In control plan document, there is a column named control method. Under this control method it is not possible to write the whole process and preventive measures to avoid chances of error so WIS numbers are written for corresponding process.
it must perform the function needed to meet the requirements of the job it’s designed to be used for. For example, if a PLC is t used in a fast-moving large-scale process you would want a PLC with a fast CPU and a large number of inputs/outputs. Communication and compatibility If the application of the PLC requires it to share data outside of the process it needs to be able to communicate with another electronic device such as a computer. It is important to know whether your desired PLC is compatible with other electronic devices and programs used by those devices. Environment Will the environment in which the PLC and process be operating experience extremes of temperature, dust or humidity?
Statistical process control will be used to monitor, correct and improve our processes. We will also use this tool to determine process capability. Quality problems must be addressed and solved one-at-a-time. In order to attack our quality problems on a priority basis, we shall use a statistical analysis approach. This allows us to address the most costly problems first.
Bar charts are limited to monitoring progress rather than forward planning of the project due to the absence of logic links between activities. Bar charts do not show sufficient detail. This presents a risk of schedule slippages, time overruns, improper decisions and contract complications. This is a major disadvantage especially for large and complex projects. Bar charts do not show the logical sequence of operations.
4.2 p Chart Methodology A p chart is a data analysis technique for determining if a measurement process has gone out of statistical control. The p chart is sensitive to changes in the proportion of defective items in the measurement process. The “p” in p chart stands for the proportion of successes of a binomial distribution. The p control chart consists of: Vertical axis = the percentage of defectives for each sub-group; Horizontal axis = the sub-group designation. A sub-group is frequently a time sequence (e.g., the number of defectives in a daily production run where each day is considered a subgroup).
Breweries, waste water treatment plants, food industries, mines, oil and gas, pharmaceutical industries and other automotive industries uses process control to maintain process variables such as temperature, pressure, flow and level into desired operation conditions and that improves the composition and quality of the products because process variable will be at a suitable condition for a certain process and that means nothing will be lost during the process. The importance of process control is to manipulate fluids in such a way that the end products are profitably produced. Most industries use process control to save money by reducing variability. For example, a company like Sasol can use a refinery with a precise control to separate the flow component and that will result in customers getting a quality gasoline at a suitable price because the gasoline that will be produced will not have high octane which will make the price to be high and loose the
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Shewhart’s Statistical Quality Control Chart (SQC) is one of the most commonly used tools in the area of Quality Control (QC) . For eighty years now these control charts (CC) have been used. These CCs are used and have gained much popularity because of their easiness and efficiency. But, a noteworthy limitation to these traditional CCs is that these charts can be used only for univariate (UV) data. Therefore, the processes determined by multivariate (MV) data are not monitored efficiently.
Strategy formulation and implementation processes run over multiple years and for that reason strategic control cannot wait until implementation is completed but is rather an on going process embedded in many different function in the organization. Strategic control is the regulatory task of top management and any individual or group that controls keys actions of the organization. It determines whether or not they have any deviations from the overall plan or key changes in the environment that require corrective measures. Without strategic control organisations have no indication of how well they are performing in relation to their ultimate end point and desired outcomes. Strategic control keeps the organization moving in its intended direction and ensures ongoing consistency between the organization and it environment.
Management Control Systems in Multinational Corporations Exploratory Study on Italian Business Groups The purpose of the research paper is to highlight the management control systems of large companies and their stories on success and failures. The paper is been based on the previous research conducted. The management control systems had the study on the following parameters A way manager can document their organization's objectives A way manager can document their organizational strategies or policies A way to assess the performance of internal corporate processes A way to show performance in relation to declared objectives and policies. The role that performance measurement plays in helping firms achieve and sustain their competitive