A fallacy is the use of poor, or invalid, reasoning for the construction of an argument. In other words, it is an argument that makes an error in logic or assumptions that should not have been made. In the formal setting, an argument is two sides presenting their sides argument using logic and deductive reasoning. In the book “Writing Arguments,” authors John Ramage, John Bean, and June Johnson compare several fallacies. The authors describe the straw man fallacy as an argument when a writer constructs a misinterpreted version of an argument that distorts its original meaning and intentions in order to criticizes it as if it were the real argument (401).
Criticisms of Eichel’s Essay In “Interpreting ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’: Translation and Manipulation of Audience Expectations,” Andrew Eichel makes a convincing argument as to how translations can affect pieces of writing. Throughout his essay, Eichel lays out a vast amount of examples as to how translations affect writing; however, there are issues with how this evidence was presented. Firstly, it is not clear what kind of audience is addressed in the essay. Eichel also presents an extremely black and white perspective on foreignization vs. domestication. Additionally, Eichel chose an unnecessarily sophisticated language for his essay and over exaggerated the way Tolkien’s translation changes the original, as well as its “obscurity.”
Conformity is defined in the dictionary as “compliance with standards, rules, or laws.” Is Conformity bad? In some cases it could help calm situations and prevent negative events. In other instances too much Conformity can lead to the lack of individuality. One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest raises the question, where is the balance between too much control and too little? In Ken Kesey’s novel he illustrates a tale about Conformity and the struggle against it.
In Leave Your Name At The Border, Manuel Munoz writes about how the anglicization of his name has affected him. This is an example of ethnocentrism, defined by dictionary.com as “a tendency to view alien groups or cultures from the perspective of one's own”. In particular, this concerns how Manuel’s name is pronounced in english as if it were a guide, rather than with the name’s original pronunciation. This harms Manuel as well as other hispanic Americans. This form of oppression exists because native english speakers tend to interpret foreign words and names as if they were in english; in other words, english speakers apply an english pronunciation of letters to foreign words.
Overall to further develop the potential essay topic of the misunderstood history of the crusades due to inaccurate primary sources, resources and articles aside from France and Burkholder 's journals would be included to further develop the general thesis. A thorough exploration of this particular topic may investigate subtopics such as secondary misinterpretations of firsthand accounts, the impact of social prejudice and political pressures on the writing of primary sources. A comprehensive analysis of the potential essay topic will go beyond the original arguments and ideas of the authors to prove or disprove France and Burkholder 's general theory scholarly articles have reinforced inaccuracies
His position in regards to his argument is directly outlined at the beginning of the text to insure that readers are aware of the author’s intensions. He uses examples of situations in which the current principle of alternative possibilities is faulted and concisely pulls apart each situation to determine exactly what constitutes the excision of morally responsibility. The article clearly outlines Frankfurt’s arguments, however it becomes evident in particular sections that Frankfurt’s arguments become slightly repetitive as he tries to, perhaps over simplify his arguments to ensure his reader understand his position. As someone who has never been exposed to the principle of alternative possibilities and its implications of moral responsibility for ones actions I found Frankfurt’s arguments were well illustrated and provided strong persuasion with appeal to reason. Frankfurt not only provides sound reasoning behind his arguments about how the principle of possible alternatives is false, however, he does suggest possible ways to revise the principle so that it is more accurate.
“The Eyes Have It” concludes with the notion that the English vocabulary once ultimately registering it, can be quite strange. Irony is used by New Criticism as a literary device to give the literature a sense of complexity and deviation. As seen in Texts and Contexts, one of the main characteristics that instills effective work in New Criticism is the ability to be complex, even when seeming simple (Lynn 55). In New Criticism, irony is used as a figure of speech where the speaker 's implication is partially said and partially not said, almost making the reading subjective. The two statements that the speaker have said, and not said are usually in contrast of eachother.
As Lewis Carroll said “When you are describing, a shape or sound, or tint, don’t state the matter plainly, but put it in a hint, and learn to look at all things, with a sort of mental squint’’. When someone says something plainly it usually doesn’t catch someone’s interest but sometimes when something is more descriptive as human beings it gets our attention. In the stories “The Tell-Tale Heart’’ by Edgar Allen Poe and The Treasure Of Lemon Brown’’ by Walter Dean Myer the authors use descriptive language to develop some of the characters and places. In “The Treasure Of Lemon Brown’’ the author uses descriptive language for creating a more vivid image of the different settings. For instance “Greg had sat in the small, pale green kitchen…’’ This tells the audience that the kitchen is not expensive and it
While Conrad’s story provides a powerful disapproval of the deceitful functions of imperialism, it also presents a set of concerns surrounding ethnicity that is ultimately disturbing. Conrad believes that the naive and pure idea in which colonialism originates from is its only moral attribute of imperialism. T.S. Eliot makes a connection to Conrad’s story in order to reveal the difference in the “idea” and “reality” imperialism. Ultimately what all three writers wanted to stress to the audience is that though the Theory of imperialism may seem pure, its reality will only bring tragedy and corruption.
By comparison, the critiques by David Kuebrich and Naomi C. Reed forwent some of the explicit suggestions of the text and instead focused on aspects of the character of Bartleby offered by circumstance and their own expertise as literary critics. It’s unsurprising that Kuebrich and Reed would view the story through a different lens than the Narrator based
She argues that the divide in research between the language production and temporary verbal memory stems from serial recall tasks because recalling random words from a list is seen by researchers as separate from the long term knowledge needed to order words in a sentence, which she views as an immediate verbal memory task. To support her theory that there is a connection, she discusses several effects that occur in immediate serial recall tasks that also occur in speaking, such as the similarity effect, primacy effect, and list-length effect. This idea of behavioral similarity is also argued in another article. Acheson and MacDonald (2009) argue against verbal working memory being an isolated system and that the maintenance aspect of the phonological loop can be attributed to the serial ordering process of phonological encoding, which they define as “the process by which a word is specified as a sequence of phonemes for the purposes of articulation” (p.