CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. About Gas Turbine: The gas turbine has become an important, well-known, and reliable device in the area of transportation, power generation and other applications. A gas turbine is an internal combustion engine; it can burn a variety of fuels to drive the engine as well as to generate power in industrial applications. Gas turbine works on Brayton Cycle consist of the following four processes: a) Adiabatic, quasi-static compression at the inlet of compressor. b) Constant pressure fuel ignition (or constant pressure heat addition).
Intake charge air densities shown in the fig are hard to obtain without charge air-cooling. The effect of charge air- cooling on density ratio is a function of the effectiveness of the charge air cooler and the pressure loss from compressor discharge to intake manifold. The effectiveness is defined as the ratio of temperature drop of charge air across the cooler to maximum temperature potential available for cooling. E = 12 T3: Intake manifold temperature T2: Compressor discharge temperature T1: Ambient temperature, which is assumed to be the same as compressor inlet temperature medium, above equation directly applies. In cases where water is used as intermediate cooling medium, the overall effectiveness is composed of the charge air cooling effectiveness and the corresponding radiator effectiveness.
In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes and the exchange of energy takes places as fluid passes through the exchangers. Shell & tube heat exchanger are the most Multilateral type of heat exchangers. They are used in the process industries, in conventional & nuclear power plants, and feed water heaters, and they are proposed for many alternative energy applications including ocean, thermal & geothermal. It is also used in some air conditioning and refrigeration systems Shell & tube heat exchanger provide relatively large ratios of heat transfer area to volume & weight and they can be easily cleaned. They offer great flexibility to meet almost any service requirement.
2.1. Internal Combustion Engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which combustion of the fuels takes place inside a chamber in the engine, usually known as the combustion chamber. The reaction is an exothermic reaction that releases gases at a high temperature and pressure, thus producing work. The engine to be used in this research project is a diesel engine, which is a form of the internal combustion engine. All internal combustion engines depend on combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with oxygen from the air.
In this cycle a circulating refrigerant enters a compressor as low pressure vapour at or slightly above the temperature of the refrigerator interior. The vapour is compressed and exits the compressor as high-pressure superheated vapour. The refrigerant, while passing through the condenser, gives up its latent heat to the surrounding condensing medium which is normally air or water. The condenser cools the refrigerant vapour, which then liquefies. This liquid refrigerant is forced through a metering or throttling device, also known as an expansion valve (essentially apin-hole sized constriction in the tubing) to an area of much lower pressure.
The then captured steam is used to drive electric generators and create electricity that households or companies can use. Since this form of renewable energy is unlimited, we will not run out of it, and able to heat whole towns it is a very beneficial form of renewable energy. Another way of using geothermal energy is
Abstract The function of a heat exchanger is to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid, or between two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat
1.1 Internal Combustion Engine Heat engine are produced from internal combustion engine which converts chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy and actually available on a rotating output shaft. Thermal energy is produced from the conversion of chemical energy of the fuel to the thermal energy by means of combustion or oxidation with air inside the engine. The temperature and pressure of the gases within the engine is raised by thermal energy and the high pressure gas then expands against the mechanical mechanisms of the engine. The mechanical linkages of the engine convert this expansion to a rotating crankshaft which is the output of the engine. For the desired final use, the crankshaft is connected to a transmission and power train to transmit the rotating mechanical energy.
You need a lot of energy to break down the hydrogen bond between water molecules and increase the kinetic energy of particles. This property plays a fundamental role in living organisms. Water cools down and heats up very slowly. Therefore, living organisms can retain heat very well, which ensures that enzymes are working at their optimum temperatures otherwise the enzymes will denature and the organism might die. Moreover, water has a high latent heat of vaporization.
Receivers operating at ambient pressure are usually called open volumetric receivers. 3.4 Closed volumetric receiver Figure 3.4: Closed volumetric receiver The other type of volumetric receivers is the closed volumetric receiver that is usually work at high pressure. These receivers rely on a transparent window to enable high-pressure operation, minimize reflection losses, re-radiation and convection losses.  4.Parabolic dish Parabolic dish solar furnace is used because it is cost effective technology: Large utility projects using parabolic dishes are now under development. In parabolic dish furnace can get high temperature as it focus all the sunlight at a point and also primary and secondary receiver is used.