In 2010, the Chinese American population numbered 3.8 million (Batalova, Hooper). The assimilation of the Chinese started in the 18th century when, mostly, males left their villages to become laborers in the American West, where they faced discrimination (“Chinese Immigration”). Today, Chinese American teenagers are finding it challenging to find their true identity in America because of outside temptations. The main character in “Fish Cheeks” can relate on how hard it is to find one’s identity in a different culture. Chinese immigrants came to America in hopes for a new life.
California was riddled with labor strife throughout the 1930s, with the largest labor strike occurring in 1933, which was the San Joaquin Cotton Valley Strike. Steinbeck briefly refers to this strike when he says, “the workers realize that the problem of the small farmer is not unlike their own. We have the example in the San Joaquin Valley two years ago of a small farmer who sided with the workers in the cotton strike.” The strike included thousands of laborers, 80% whom were Mexicans. The reason there were so many Mexicans in the strike was because Mexicans were the labor of choice in California during this time.
For instance, “in 1852 a special foreign miner’s tax aimed at the Chinese was passed by the California legislature” (Explore.museumca.org, 1996). Essentially, the Chinese were charged a certain amount of money to search for gold. Also, the native Mexicans in California were deemed foreign as well, therefore they too were taxed (Pbs.org, 2006). In addition, many Native Americans had to flee from the gold mines because their women were being raped and their men were targeted (Kosher, 2015).
The problems emerged as the population grew massive in china during the 18th and 19th centuries. The growing had a pressure on land which cause deforestation, there were not enough food for everyone so smaller farms were given to peasant population. There were a lot of increased corruption including poorly maintained public work and loss of impoverishment, misery, and starvation. Since there were too many people, the government did not expand they were able to performed effectively on flood control, famine, rebellion, etc. In mid-19th century a majority population of China are addicted to opium drug which cause a major threat to their economy and social order.
an example of a later pull factor was the us industry expansion that gave new opportunities to unemployed immigrants. also other country 's land was limited and a bad harvest could result in the loss of land. in greece jobs did not pay enough and in america you could earn 30 dollars
In the 1950 's the dwindling areas of land up in the highlands could no longer support the native Indian population and the poor began to drift toward the final frontier, the sporadically populated Lacandon rainforest area to the East. That is where these migrants cleared areas of the rainforest land and exposed the red clay soil that loses its lushness after about one to three crop cycles. These migrants were soon joined by other Spanish speaking migrants who were also fleeing poverty in many other areas of Mexico, many of the migrants had numerous experiences in local peasant
In almost every nation, the development of a railway created a connection throughout the country that was previously unmatched by any other form of transportation. In Canada, this evolution of the railroad was constructed on the backs of tens of thousands of Chinese immigrants. Specifically during the building of the Trans-Canada railway, over 15,000 chinese workers worked tirelessly to lay over 500 kilometers of track from 1881-1885. The dangerous nature of this work incurred the deaths of over 4000 of those workers; those who survived were left with only a meager amount of money as they received half of what their Canadian counterparts were paid. Although this railway came at a high toll, it transformed the face of Canadian transportation
Many Issei were laborers, coming to America to snatch up all the jobs the Chinese had left open in the wake of the Chinese Expulsion Act of 1882. Though many were laborers, some were students, merchants, or professionals. Racism was a massive problem for the Japanese-Americans. Native born Americans resented the Japanese presence in the Pacific Northwest as they believed that the Japanese were taking jobs that belonged to the Americans. Americans also disliked the Japanese because, after Imperial Japan’s win over Russia in 1905, Japan was considered a geopolitical rival.
The first Japanese Americans emigrated to the U.S. mostly as the second or third sons of the family in search of a new economic future similar to other immigrants. Primogeniture was still in practice in the late 1800’s, so the eldest son inherited the entire estate, leaving the other sons at the mercy of their own resourcefulness. These fortune seekers settled along the western states as farmers and farm laborers amid high anti-Chinese sentiment. They’re willingness to work for lower wages in poor conditions created a split labor market and as a result, they endured extreme hostility and physical attacks from union members representing the manufacturing and service industries. They experienced legal discrimination in the forms of denial of citizenship and denial of land ownership as non-whites.
One of the races that was affected were the Chinese, who arrived in California to build railroads and work in the mining community. They were frequently discriminated against, and denied citizenship rights. Eventually becoming scapegoats whenever there was an economic downturn. For African Americans, since the collapse of radical Republican rule in the South, thousands migrated West. Like the African American newly freed slaves of the South they also suffered from the lack of recourses, and were completely unprepared for the harsh living conditions.
Surviving the dust bowl, many people left since the living conditions were so harsh. Some people tried to stay but in the end they had to leave since they lost their land in bank foreclosures. By 1940 about 2.5 million people have moved to the flatland; of those 200,000 moved to California. Landing in California, the migrants were confronted with an existence practically as troublesome as the one they had cleared out. The dust bowl exodus was the largest migration in American history.
Racism is a degrading, but justifiable use of word. Adolf Hitler exemplified the use of chauvinism and segregation during the holocaust, simply by exterminating about six million Jews. Fundamentally attitudes of racial superiority and inferiority, bigotry and prejudice or of any form construct us to be diminishing of our compassion and understanding of being inhumane. Racial discrimination motivates or influences the act of violence, which also creates a barrier between Social and economic participation and leads to the involvement of segregation.
On May 6, 1882, President Chester A. Arthur signed a federal law prohibiting Chinese laborers to immigrate. This U.S. federal law was called The Chinese Exclusion Act. During the California Gold Rush, many Chinese immigrated to North America. As gold became harder to find, hostility built up towards Chinese immigrates. A combination of racism and misunderstanding of another culture cause fear that turned into hate.
According to Bilby and Handler (2004), obeah is defined as a combination of “a wide variety of beliefs and practices involving the control or channelling of supernatural spiritual forces, usually for socially beneficial ends such as treating illness, bringing good fortune, protecting against harm, and avenging wrongs” (p. 153). Slavery was widespread throughout the Caribbean during the 1700’s, therefore slave revolts were very common. An overseer slave known as Tacky decided to plan a revolt that may grant him along with the other slaves their freedom. After the Tacky Rebellion in 1760, the movement towards the illegalization of obeah began in the Caribbean. Tacky was said to have led the Koromantyn slaves, giving them a “magical preparation
Chinese Immigrants: The Gold Rush Like the other nations in the world, the Chinese Empire was represented in the California Gold Rush. At the beginning of 1849 only about fifty Chinese men participated in the Gold Rush. By the year 1876 a steady flow of Chinese immigrants entered California, an amazing amount of 116,000 Chinese were engaged in the great search for gold. The cause of the mass immigration of the Chinese was the war, famine, and poor economy in China.