In this research, the writer uses the theory of B.F Skinner explain behavioral psychology. Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. Skinner 's theory of operant conditioning was based on the work of Thorndike (1905). Edward Thorndike studied learning in animals using a puzzle box to propose the theory known as the 'Law of Effect '.
Children are more likely to repeat actions that result in receiving praise; in contrast, they may ignore or abandon behaviors that make them get punishment. Nevertheless, Skinner points out that children learn nothing from the punishment. Instead, they may start to work out how to avoid it (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Another concept is classical conditioning (classical behaviorism) that emphasizes on the relation between stimuli and response. This concept embodies in a famous experiment, in which the food is presented to the dog when the bell rings, and the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus for the dog (Nolan & Raban, 2015).
Behavioural Perspective According to Barnett (2015), behaviourism focuses and studies how humans behave and are to behave to determine differences. Behaviourism believes people have no free will and their environment dictates how they think, act or become. Barnett (2015) stated, Ivan Pavlov was the first theorist to develop behaviourism. He lived with his dogs and would bring food (stimulus) to them daily. He noticed each time the dogs saw him, they would salivate.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The term “Behaviorism” was the science of observable behaviour according to John Broadus Watson (1903). In Behaviorism, Only behaviour that could be observed, recorded and measured was of any real value for the study of humans and animals and its goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behaviour (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect). This theory was more concerned with the effects of stimuli because Watson derived much of his thinking from classical conditioning of Pavlov’s animal studies and this is also referred to as “learning through stimulus substitution”. It is a reference to the substitution of one stimulus for another. For example, the ringing of a bell eventually produced the same response as food for Pavlov’s dog.
Theory 1- Behaviourism The basis of the behaviourist theory is that learning is a passive process in where learning is defined as "what people do in response to external stimuli" (Elliot, 2007, pg 46). Learning is therefore the procurement of new behaviours. According to Skinner, knowledge is not used to guide human actions, it is the action itself (Skinner 1976. p152). Behaviourism suggests that in order to learn, the learner needs an active engagement and needs to be reinforced with instant rewards (Sotto, 2007: 35). The more satisfying the reward to the learner, the more the behaviour of the learner is strengthened, leading to more comprehensive learning (Skinner 1974 cited in Elliott 2007 pg 48).
Behaviorist theory is about learning by repetition, the more the repetition the more the person will learn. The behaviorist theory tells that the human being can acquire all behaviors and habits through conditions that happen during the interaction with what has surrounded them or ‘the environment’. Behaviorists believe that human responses to environmental stimuli shape their behaviors. According to Schuman “Behaviorism” the behaviorist theory focuses on a new behavioral pattern that it’s repeated until it becomes a habit. Pavlov’s experiment was about repetition, he trained a dog by ringing a bell in some kind of a situation procedure.
Kohn argues that using ‘lures for learning’ can result in students experiencing anxiety (1993, p.8). Also in special education settings students are possibly subjected to ‘Skinnerian manipulation’ (1993, p. 8). This highlights the role of criticality in classroom management and the importance of teasing out underlying assumptions through reflection (Brookfield, 1995). It raises ethical awareness to the behaviourist choices we make as teachers as we ought to recognise that we are not looking to alter the personality of young students through behaviourist techniques, but rather reduce anti-social behaviours. Contrary to this, in Kohn’s view, behaviourist teaching is seen as a ‘controlling’ technique and as a way to increase learning performance.
Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system: If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. For example, leading behaviourist B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance and bowl a ball in a mini-alley. This theory is relatively simple to understand because it relies only on observable behaviour and describes several universal laws of behaviour. Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective– such as in treatments for human disorders including autism, anxiety disorders and antisocial behaviour. Behaviourism is often used by teachers who reward or punish student behaviours.
The theory is that behaviour is determined by the external environment. It is a part of psychology that is not related to the study of consciousness instead the study of behaviour within itself. Behavioural theory was founded and influenced in the early 20th century by John B Watson, Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner. John Watson theorized classical behaviourism which is the objective study of behaviour. Ivan Pavlov theorized classical conditioning where in an experiment dogs associated food with the arrival of the laboratory assistant through learned behaviour through an external stimulus.
Introduction: Learning, is a process that can be described as long lasting changes in behaviour potential that comes as a result influenced by experience. (Cherry, 2010).In order to understand human be-haviour researchers will observe the effects of the environment, conditioning, and reinforce-ment. One psychologists that is notably for his work with behaviour and learning is B.F Skin-ner. Skinner is considered to be the father of Operant Conditioning, although his work was based on Thorndike’s (1905) law of effect. Skinner added to Thorndike’s work by introduc-ing a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement.