His theories about syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations are significant in studying a metaphor. Mikhail Bakhtin is a critic who is influential in aesthetics, semio-tics, and intertextuality. He elaborates the dialogic aspect of texts. Words or utterances associate with other words and utterances, and they enter into a "dialogic interaction" (Bakhtin, 1984: 90). Therefore, Bakhtin's (1984: 21) "polyphony" shows the plurality of meaning of signs in William Shakespeare's sonnets.
In his essay Bakhtin provides an analysis of the relationship between individual utterances and the ideologically charged forces that affect them, he writes: “The dialogic interaction of a word among other words (of all kinds and degrees of otherness) creates new and significant artistic potential in discourse, creates the potential for a distinctive art of prose, which has found its fullest and deepest expression in the novel.” (275) i.e. there are dialogic relations between the narrator and the writer, the author and the character, the story and other stories, culture and text and society and text. A novel is in fact characterized by heteroglossiawhere many voices (writer, character, society) are mixed which gives originality to the text.
They utilize Russian literary scholar Mikhail Bakhtin’s dialogism approach, which suggests that in a polyphonic novel there is no one dominant voice rather all voices have important value as they interact with each other. Bakhtin (1895-1975) was a philosopher, literary scholar, and a radical Soviet thinker. He lived in polyglot cities and was brought up in a Russian Orthodox Christianity. His circle of friends embraced a new thinking that is away from conventional norms. He was exiled for his unconventional thoughts.
265] and to the stratification of discourses in a narrative. Bakhtin’s theory considers that the meaning in a polyphonic novel is generated through the layering of the multiple perspectives of characters and thus through the juxtaposition of several ideologies and belief-systems unlike the ‘homophonic’ or monologic novel that delivers a narrative from a single point of view. Dialogism on the other hand consists of the functioning of polyphony. In other words, it means the interaction of the multiple voices and perspectives in a text and their mutual influence on one another.
Using figurative language is a viable method for conveying a thought that is not effectively comprehended due to its abstract nature or unpredictability. Although figurative language does not offer a strict clarification, it can be utilized to contrast one thought with a second thought to make the principal thoughtless demanding to imagine. Figurative language likewise is used to connect two thoughts with the objective of letting the reader see an association, regardless of the fact that one doesn't really exist. Writers of poems use figurative language to evoke feelings, which would help the reader construct mental pictures which would then draw them into the
A novel is a tool employed by the author to explore and teach the reader about certain subjects. Differences between the intended topics of indirect discussion inform the tone, atmosphere, content, and characters of the novel. Thus, novels that discuss coming of age have very different settings and subjects that novels that want to discuss war and violence. Even within the same genre, the author’s chosen topics of discussion dictate differences between characters, style, and setting. Noir is one of the best genres to observe these shifts in because it is characterized by a certain style and character design so that any deviation from the norm is glaring.
The novel comprises mild satire and cool irony that get reflected in the attitude of the narrator towards the protagonist. There is a pointed satire towards the migration of identity, from Indian to Marxist. The narrator himself has an attitude of adoration towards Padmanabha’s Indian qualities and that of irony for his Russian and European leaning. The language is typically Raja Rao’s. Many a times, sentences extend for many lines; frequent use of punctuations in the syntax reflects the subtleties and complexity required to show the puzzling personality of Padmanabha.
This novel shows testimony to the postmodern and post-structural awareness of the pluralities and multiplicity of subjectivity and how a character becomes a ‘text’ (a text with language) or a dialogic ‘space’ where different contrary ideologies collide for dominance. Further, the paper seeks to demonstrate this role
Although, Dr. Nazrul Islam identifies this text as an autobiographical novel in his book, Banglar Atmajibonimulak Upanyas, the writer’s noble insight has launched it beyond the space of locality, temporality or particularity, and set it towards the infinite search for humanity. The characters do not remain confined within a known world, but were turned into an ever living sculptured art which speaks nothing particular but suggests a history of humanity. There is a search for the goodness, already in man and consequently, the novel aims to subvert all the gnawing narrow barriers of caste, class, creed and religion. It tells of a time when a human would be treated primarily as a human being, and his social identity will come as secondary. The