The Theoretical Concept Of Empowerment In Entrepreneurship

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1- Theoretical background: 1-1 Empowerment: The concept of empowerment has been a dominant key word for international policy-making , its precise definition and meaning have been long debated (Anna, Chandler, Jansen and Mero, 2000; McGehee and Kim, 2004) In the development literature, Friedman (1992) places empowerment at the forefront of the movement toward the type of development which is centered “on people and their environment rather than production and profits.” one of the most commonly agreed upon definitions of empowerment is by Rappaport (1987):“the ability of people, organizations, and communities to gain mastery over their affairs.” . Similarly Sadan (1997) defines empowerment as “a process of transition from a state of powerlessness to a state of relative control over one’s life, destiny and environment.”…show more content…
We will use the latter definition of empowerment as the ability to make choices and the power to make changes. In turn, the empowerment in entrepreneurship is reflected in the ‘intention’ which is the state of mind directing a person's attention and action towards self-employment as opposed to organizational employment based on Bird (1988). Therefore, ‘high’ attitude towards self-employment actually indicates that the respondent is more empowered in favor of self-employment than organizational employment (Souitaris, Zerbinatiand Al-Laham,

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