Post-Modern Feminism The postmodern feminist theory is based on postmodernism. To explain the postmodern feminism, it is necessary to first explain the postmodern theory. In fact, the existence of a counterpoint to define in the philosophical background of postmodern theory gives as much information as postmodernism. What the common features of postmodernism is yet to be answered. There is, however, a consensus that this term speaks of a theoretical whole: it is a consensus that all the texts of thinkers like Jean-François Lyotard and Jean Baudrillard describe it, and that this elite is a set of other texts written by poststructuralists such as Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
This article defines what Butler in her book Judith Butler introduction gender trouble chapter one: “subjects of sex/gender/desire” wants to convey to the reader. Butler presumes that there is an already existing feminist identity known as "women.' Many feminists believe that developing a female identity is essential to creating awareness on women's political issues. Butler challenges this. She doesn't think that the idea of "woman" is a well-defined category.
As the feminist movement evolved, women began to question their traditional sexual roles. Feminists made it clear that single or not, women were all entitled to their sexual desires and freedoms. However for conservatives, this sexual revolution seemed to be an excuse for women to be promiscuous and an attack on the “foundation of American society”- family (American Experience, 2001). This clash of opinions amongst the two groups ultimately created a large debate over the pill. The Pill essentially became a convenient scapegoat for this so called sexual revolution among conservatives.
We will also inquire in Beauvoir’s concept of Independent woman to know if woman are likely to liberate herself from the system. But of course we must also identify what Patriarchal system is, and how it does affect woman’s condition and whether it is possible for woman to be fully liberated. Our goal is to first settle the condition of woman through her existing body and further turning to her situation in the society. Consequently we shall address whether Feminism is still significant in attaining gender equality, or is gender equality possible by all means. From here, the researcher will try to unfold the root cause of gender inequality by studying of the woman’s situation, since by disclosing the condition of woman we are also unveiling the condition of man in the
Contemporary feminism has undergone deep changes and has been extended in a variety of directions in miscellaneous fields of study engaging with psychology, Marxism, ethnic and cultural studies, post-structuralism, etc. The frustration of proliferation, according to Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan in their introductory note to Feminism in the book Literary Theory: An Anthology (2002) can be construed as pains of progress necessary to be made if we want to transcend the borders of a circumscribed definition of woman as the subject of study in early feminism. The concept of female experience in a male-dominant world was first introduced as a resistence to the immutable and stabilized representation of women whose concerns have been treated peripheral
Mediums such as autobiographies, newsletters, magazines and storytelling were vital in creating the foundations for the developing recognition of women’s voices outside the spheres of literature. These publications played a crucial role in circulating feminist concepts and influencing society, a point supported by contemporary Michael Mack that the effect of “literature persuades us to cope with change.” A key publication was The Feminine Mystique, published in the 1960s by Betty Freidan, which explained how the domestic stereotype expected of women ultimately restricted their happiness and fulfilment. Despite modern criticisms of the books’ limitations from third wave feminists, the book was considered a critical turning point in the revival of second wave feminism. The Feminine Mystique sold millions of copies and became a bestselling nonfiction book. This indicates to us the large-scale influence that the book held on culture and society, the work provoking women into considering their selfhood and positions, even being referred to as “a catalyst for change" by modern day feminist Eleanor Smeal.
Its opponents have even suggested that feminist rhetoric condemns the opposite sex to the extent of gender antagonism (Young). In light of both the altruistic progressivism and the criticized status surrounding the contemporary women’s movement, the progress made through centuries of perseverance overall suggests that the movement intends to better and help the status of women in society. Now a movement based around securing the franchise of women, contemporary feminism initially spawned to uphold the rights of women before they were legally acknowledged. The spirit of the movement established itself at this initial point, a “gathering devoted to women’s rights” (“The Women 's Rights Movement, 1848-1920”). As such, in commitment to its original form, the contemporary movement reflects
The theory focuses on explaining why women are oppressed and highlights ways states can be deconstructed to equally represent women nationally and internationally. First of all, it is essential to establish the understanding that Feminist theory is constructed from what is known as core international relations feminism, and the four-variant feminist international relations: liberal feminism, critical feminism, postcolonial feminism, and post-structural feminism, these theories branches off of the core theory. Each theory applies a different understanding to how feminism might be applied to certain fields and situations; like how feminism might be applied to an international situation like the Arab Spring. Therefore, understanding core feminist theory is essential to understanding feminism as a whole. As well, majority of the current international relation theories are masculine in nature, feminism is a political tool that struggles to free all women from the oppressive nature of patriarchy.
According to contemporary gender role ideology, gender roles have been and still are constantly changing. Londa Schiebinger in her book Has Feminism Changed Science also expresses similar views and enunciates that gendered characteristics – typically masculine or feminine behaviors, interests, or values – are not innate, nor are they arbitrary. They are formed by historical circumstances. They can also change with historical circumstances. Women’s writing and feminists have also questioned all such existing view points, that are essentially ‘patriarchal and conventional’ in nature.
“A Doll’s House” by Henrik Ibsen is a feminist play, as shown by demonstrating the risks of defying societal norms and the burden of gender rules through many of his characters. In Ibsen’s opinion, “A Doll’s House” was primarily about the human condition. However, humanism and feminism are both centered around people and their values. Women were disregarded as human beings at the time of “A Doll’s House” publication. “Ibsen has been resoundingly saved from feminism, or, as it was called in his day, “the woman question”(Templeton).
The Flaws of Constructivist Thinking Social constructivism and psychology have come at odds in recent years, as social constructivism has increasingly been used as the be-all-end-all explanation by third-wave feminists for different aspects of human sexuality and sexual behavior, despite proven scientific explanations that debunk and even contradict such a view. In the continuation of the everlasting nature vs. nurture debate, the feminists assert that society, nurture, is far more significant in determining sexual behavior than genetic or innate biological factors. These modern-day constructivists are as close to the Tabula Rasa/blank slate perspective as can be, and assert this as the truth, even when science shows otherwise. The University of California Berkeley explains that social constructivist view asserts that “all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions” (Berkeley). In other words, it argues that human behavior is learned through interactions with other people and the whole of society, and “not
Medea: Questions About Women and Femininity Euripides’ play, Medea, is an ambiguous narrative relating to feminism. Depending on one’s viewpoint, the eponymous character can either be one of the most unconventional delegates of women’s rights or an oblivious saboteur willing to undermine the cause. I believe the former, holding the opinion that Medea was a pioneer for feminism, being the original driving force behind breaking the stereotypes assigned to women. Although I also hold the stance that her impact is short-term due to the fact that her surrounding actions have overshadowed her ambitious acts.