There is no way to get to the bottom of things in such an approach and this confuses a lot of people. In a way it encourages the relativistic perspective, which then makes feminist research seem pointless. But rather than succumbing to a depoliticized relativism, postmodern framework focuses on the sociopolitical grounding of experience. The validity of the categories of masculinity and femininity are questioned. Postmodernists argue that in challenging gender as a foundational category of analysis they show greater reflexivity.
The article is based on how social construction theory is based on the idea of “natural,” rather than based on invariant result of the body, biology, or innate sex drive. Whiles essentialism in the study of sexuality as believe that a human behavior is “natural,” that is predetermined by genetic, biology, or physiological mechanism that doesn’t change. The perspective of moving away from essentialist framework that challenged the “natural” status, suggesting that human’s gender and sexuality is called into question. In the article, “Social Construction Theory: Problems in the History of Sexuality,” Carole Vance argues that social construction violates idealistic of ideology, and raise status question.
Introduction Feminist standpoint theory came into being in the 1970’s and 1980’s. The genealogy of feminist standpoint theory however began with Hegal ’s account of the slave/master dialectic, and after that with Marx and, Lukacs’ development of the idea of a standpoint of the proletariate. Hegal’s argument was that a slaves can in time reach a state “freedom of consciousness” due to their realisation of self-consciousness through struggles against the master, and through physical labour that enables him/her to fashion the world - to affect it in various ways. Hegal’s analysis of the slave/master relationship and the struggle that took place gave rise to the idea that oppression is better studied and analysed from the point of view of the oppressed,
Gender dysphoria is the dissatisfaction with the biological sex one is born with which results in a multitude of symptoms. The dysphoria often associated with wanting to alter one’s body and gender expression to be parallel with what is felt to be one’s gender identity. Either a trans person is born with a female mind and a male parts, or the alternate. (Phillips, 2014). The mind cannot be operated on so the only choice is to help trans-sexualism is to alter the body using surgery and other hormonal replacement therapy options so it mirrors what the mind sees. The process of these actions is known gender transistion. Contingent upon the individual, their use of hormones, their choice of surgery, and their eagerness to do the work to which this
Women are useless; at least that’s how they’ve been regarded as throughout history. During the totality of history women have been treated and observed as inferior to men. Women have always been the subjects of judgment, being seen as both weak and as obedient servants by their societies as well as their respective religions. Women have long been the discussion of men, with no input from women. Interestingly, women’s fate has always been determined by the opposite sex, without an insightful analysis from those who will be affected from the boundaries that would be set as a result. In the postclassical era, from 500 to 1400 C.E., the treatment of women was a major issue, going through changes because of religion and region. The female species
Throughout the years femininity in Hollywood cinema has changed quite drastically. The industry has gone through several phases that changed how femininity was viewed. This paper will address the postfeminist phase in Hollywood, while focusing on the film Bridget Jones’ Diary (2001). It will show how postfeminism is viewed in cinema as well as the characteristics that make a film considered to be postfeminist. Bridget Jones’ Diary (2001) showcases all the characteristics needed in a postfeminist film which makes the film a great representative of postfeminist attitudes in media.
Using Feminist Theory, the reader can understand the message in “The Yellow Wallpaper.” In the story, John’s wife is slowly going mentally insane. John limits her abilities in society, because John does not allow her to work, the ability to write, and forces her to stay in the isolated nursery. For example, John’s wife describes her desire to work to do her good mentally. “Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good.” Through the Feminist Theory, John does not believe her ideas and forces her to do something against her will. John believes that his idea and opinions are superior. Secondly, John does not allow her to express her feeling through writing. “ I did write for a while in spite of them;
The Progressive Era, lasting from about 1890 to 1920, was a period of social reform and adaptation to the new technologies and advancements of the Gilded Age. With the increase of railroads and other means of transportation, people in the Progressive Era had access to more goods and information than ever before. Society was adapting to new industries that required less man power and more machine power, and domestic life was no different. The technologies introduced into the homes of white middle-class women meant that the workload they adopted was much lighter. Women of this era arguably felt some of the most significant changes of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. With more leisure time and less household responsibilities, many
The first wave feminists may have been classified as ‘Wowsers’ by some, due to people’s perceptions in the way they used the ideas of society, and behaviour of men, during the late 19th to early 20th century to oppose their exclusion from social and political life, and to improve society’s views of women and women’s rights. This essay will argue that the first wave feminists were not ‘Wowsers’, and that the women’s movement needed to act against the behaviour of men and society’s ideologies to improve women’s rights. This will be demonstrated by examining the social construction of gender role expectations and masculinity. While also focusing on societies views of sexuality and sexual morality and the impact this had on women and young girls
Dualism is the major focus of Anne Fausto-Sterling’s (2000) “Dueling Dualisms” with deep discussion on the dichotomy of “sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed.” However, her movement to the concept of intertwined biology and lived experience are insightful. I would like to look at how Fausto-Sterling describes and supports the idea of nature and nurture working together to create gender and sexuality. Fausto-Sterling (2000) stated “sexuality is a somatic fact created by a cultural effect,” meaning that there is truth to the biological form that creates the body and it still severs a function, but this biological body is altered through the environment. Fausto-Sterling (2000) suggested that the body and culture are always moving together to create individual lived experience and that one “cannot merely subtract the environment, culture, history and end up with nature to biology.”
The Flaws of Constructivist Thinking Social constructivism and psychology have come at odds in recent years, as social constructivism has increasingly been used as the be-all-end-all explanation by third-wave feminists for different aspects of human sexuality and sexual behavior, despite proven scientific explanations that debunk and even contradict such a view. In the continuation of the everlasting nature vs. nurture debate, the feminists assert that society, nurture, is far more significant in determining sexual behavior than genetic or innate biological factors. These modern-day constructivists are as close to the Tabula Rasa/blank slate perspective as can be, and assert this as the truth, even when science shows otherwise. The University of California Berkeley explains that social constructivist view asserts that “all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions” (Berkeley). In other words, it argues that human behavior is learned through interactions with other people and the whole of society, and “not
“Almost half of all women age 15-44 have used drugs at least once in their life. Of these women, nearly 2 million have used cocaine and more than 6 million have used marijuana within the past year. Most women drug abusers use more than one drug”( Women in Drug Abuse). In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley he predicted that everyone would live in a society that was calm and didn 't have bad tempers. Huxley created a drug called soma which would vanquish people 's emotions and they 're willing to be contempt with a society that was picked for them and be extremely happy. Huxley predicted that in modern day society people would be on drugs and reliable of them. What are the unique needs for women with substance abuse?