The Theory Of Ethics: The Four Theories Of Right Action

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There are various theories in ethics, which are helpful to build the appropriate fundamental principles and applicable to professional and personal demeanor of a person in his life on a daily basis. There are mainly four theories which are crucial for right action and ethical behavior. These are:

1. “Golden means” ethics (Aristotle, 384 – 322 B.C.). According to this theory, the best solution is achieved through reason and logic and is a compromise or “golden mean” between extremes of excess and deficiency. For example, in the case of the environment, the golden mean between the extremes of neglect and exploitation might be protection.

Problem: Variability from one person to another in their powers of reasoning and the difficulty in applying the theory to ethical problems.

2. “Rights – based” ethics (John Locke, 1632 – 1704). Every individual is free and has equal right and has the
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It refers to the goodness of oneself in the long run. Each of the ethical theories discusses about the importance of self-interest. Utilitarian approach considers one’s own good as well as the good of others. Duty ethicist stresses duties to us and for own well-being. Ethicists of rights emphasize our rights to pursue our own good. Virtue ethicists accent the importance of self – respect. Each of these theories insists that the pursuit of self – interest must be balanced and kept under control by moral responsibilities to other people.
Now let us consider a view called “Ethical Egoism” which challenges all the ethical theories and it tries to reduce morality to the pursuit of self-interest. It is called ‘egoism’, because it says that our main duty is to maximize our own good. According to Thomas Hobbes and Any Rand, moral values are reduced to concern for oneself but always a rational concern which requires consideration of a person’s long-term interests.

2.13.2 Ethical
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