Some protestant leaders such as Niemoller challenged the Nazis and set up the Confessional Church to oppose Hitler’s Reich Church. This however proved that Hitler wasn’t in control of all aspects of Germany because there were people who were ready to go against him, and did not fear him. Moreover, The Catholic Church, signed a Concordat with Hitler saying they would stay out of politics if the Nazis left them alone. The Nazis then betrayed the Concordat, and banned the Catholic Youth, they removed church symbols from classrooms before taking control of church schools, which angered The Catholic Church. The Catholic Church then replied by criticising Hitler in a papal message “With Burning Concern”.
He felt that he would be doing the world a favor by wiping out the Jewish race. (https://www.scholieren.com/praktische-opdracht/15482) According to the first paragraph from the article The Nazi Party was a far right political party in germany that was active between 1920-1945 and practiced the ideology of Nazism.’’ When and why did Hitler came to power?. It’s because after months of negotiations,the president of Germany, Hindenburg decided Hitler chancellor of Germany in a government supposedly dominated by conservatives on January 30,1933. The Nazi also carried out the Holocaust by them hiding away from the soldiers but the Nazi spread in Europe.Even some of the Nazi used jews as a labrotary experiment according to the video in class.
After Ieyasu's death, his descendant, Tokugawa Iemitsu, enacted the Tokugawa Edict of 1635, an edict that began the seclusion of Japan. The edict forbade Japanese ships or people from leaving the country, as well as ordered a direct investigation into any Christian places of learning or worship (Lu 221-222). Yukihiro Ohashi, professor at Waseda University in Tokyo, writes the following about the anti-Christian edicts: The Christian prohibition was enforced because quite simply, in the eyes of the Bakufu, the Christians posed a threat. The established view holds that the Christian threat was twofold: firstly there was the fear of the 'colonisation' of Japan through the military might of Portugal and Spain on whom the Christian missionaries were seen to rely, and secondly there was fear of the outbreak of popular uprisings inspired by Christians (Yukihiro 46). The first reason the edicts were made, then, was to stop the spread of religion from the Spanish and Portuguese, and to a lesser extent, the Dutch.
With those reformers and wars, it changed Europe forever. Martin Luther was a Protestant reformer who criticized the Church’s ideas of selling indulgences in 1517 (Textbook). Luther believed that people could only be saved through faith in God. Protestantism encouraged people to choose their own religious beliefs, that led to the formation of Calvinist, Anglican, and Presbyterian churches alongside the Lutheran church, which had already existed. Luther nailed his
Calvinism made their laws from the Bible, and they eventually became the government's laws as well. This caused sinning to become a crime, that was punished by the Calvinist clergy, and eventually, they would be tried by the local court. Lutheranism began in Germany after Martin Luther was excommunicated in 1521. After, he was condemned
Paul Tillich, born in 1886 was born in Germany, and was rather conservative in politics, as indicated by his involvement in ‘Wingolf.’ However, in 1914 Tillich became a Chaplain in the German army for World War I, and his experiences on the frontlines shaped his views towards more socialist ideas, later putting him at odds with the Nazi party. By 1933, Tillich left Germany and joined the Union Theological Seminary in New York where he would go to publish The Courage to Be. The Courage to Be was written post World War II, after a devastating and pointless war rooted in vengeance for World War I and rampant nationalism. In wake of events such as the Holocaust, it could be argued that humanity is hopeless and meaningless. These events caused existential dread and the rise of existentialism.
Instead, it is Germany’s Military reorganization because it reduced Germany’s military which made them feel weak and trapped which for a nationalism country, it is the worst to no longer feel the pride in your country the you used to. These four ways the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany after WWI helped the Treaty to be the cause of WWII. On that note I will leave you with, do you still believe one document couldn’t have helped to start World War
Facing persecution in Europe, the Puritans came to America in order to create a society that lived according to the Bible’s demands. They were a separatist group who believed in purifying the Church of England by eliminating all aspects of Catholicism, like the Pope, for instance (“Puritan New England; Plymouth”). They also believed in predestination. This means that God chose whether or not a person would be saved or condemned at birth. However, the Puritans did not know whether God chose them to be saved or condemned, therefore, they lived through strict policies laid out in the “Covenant of Works” and the “Covenant of Grace.” The “Covenant of Grace” declares that “nothing people do can erase their sins nor earn them a place in heaven.” Consequently, the “Covenant of Works” states that “God’s elect must do good works…to earn their salvation” (Henretta).
In the 1st century, Christianity spread throughout Rome causing differing views on the religion. At first Christianity was disapproved of by the upper class, then in later years it was embraced. The spread of Christianity throughout Rome eventually caused Rome to split and lead to the fall of the Roman empire. Christianity challenged the government, believing in a higher power then the Emperor. With this mindset, the government feared for it’s future in Rome and it was disapproved of, much like the Tang Emperor Wu in document 6, who stated that it will cause disorder in society.
Within a period of six months Martin Luther published his famous three treatises of 1520, each one outlining his displeasure of the Renaissance papacy and his anger at the exploitation of the Germans by the Roman church. One of these treatises is an Appeal to the Ruling Class. Within this Luther expresses his main criticisms about the Roman church and how these should be changed. Luther’s aim for writing the treatise was to make a change to the Roman church in a way that he believed would be more true to the bible. He describes the ‘Romanists’ using quite vicious language to get his point across.
Peter’s Basilica. Like his earlier peers that stood for a Church reformation, Martin Luther disagreed with the selling of indulgences and wrote the immediately popular 95 Theses, mainly attacking the misuse of German money and the Pope’s control over Purgatory. He argued that the letters Paul writes to the Greek Churches in the Book of Romans emphasised “the just shall live by faith” alone, instead of relying on financial transactions that would guarantee a person’s cleansing from sin. According to the New Testament, Jesus had came to Earth to die for all of humanity’s sins, and to put a monetary price to salvation would demean the significance and sacrifice He had done out of grace alone. Luther went on to question the Church, reasoning if Christian practices had came to be corrupted, then it was possible its teaching were as well.
1 A) From a historical perspective, the United States was a Christian nation from 1600 to around 1940’s despite efforts to enforce the notion that the state is separate from the church. The main reason for this was due to the characteristics of the Puritans which included being strict and religious. The Puritans were persecuted from Britain for going against the church of England and declaring a divine intervention for their faith known as “Errand in the wilderness”. During the Great Awakening from 1730’s to the 1740’s there was a call for the state to get rid of religious hierarchy and place a more egalitarian system in its place. The great awakening, an Evangelical movement, was marked my emotionally driven sermons, and yet was also marked
This was when a German priest and scholar Martin Luther nailed to the church door in Wittenberg, a city in eastern Germany, his list of ninety-five theses, or statements, questioning the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther believed that people should live their lives by following the Bible, not the pope. He pointed and exposed the corruption he had witnessed in the church. His call for reform brought about the rise of Protestant churches throughout Europe. As it would in other European countries, the era of reformation and
His 95 theses which propounded two central beliefs that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deed was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been advanced before, Martin Luther codified them at them at the moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by the Luther’s ideas. Luther’s writings changed the course of religious and cultural history in the West. His revolutionary ideas served as the catalyst for the eventual breaking away from the Catholic Church.
Bauer’s argument, in short, is that anti-Semitism exists in Germany because the state is Christian, and as long as the state is Christian it will discriminate against the Jews. Thus, it is necessary to separate the state and the church to achieve political emancipation and abolish anti-Semitism. Marx, however, responds to this argument by bringing up the fact that the United States has full political emancipation, yet religion still exists and is quite prevalent, which means anti-Semitism still exists in a society in which the state and church are separated. Thus, there is a difference between political emancipation, which Bauer brings up, and human emancipation, which Marx believes is what is necessary, yet at the same time is currently impossible in today’s society. This difference is what Marx addresses in the above quote and explains why political emancipation is not