In Dante’s Inferno, Dante thoroughly describes what he believes Hell to be. He lists many sins, along with their punishments and placements in Hell. Strangely enough, Dante does not have a specific circle for idolatry, the worship of idols, or something other than God. This is thought to be strange because idolatry is generally considered a grave sin. One possible explanation of this is that each sin in itself can be viewed as a form of idolatry.
XVI). Furthermore, Virgil claims that love is the source of both good and evil deeds. (Purg XVII) This idea is reflected in the Inferno and Purgatorio: the violent sinners lack love, the prideful sinners who have too much of it for themselves, and the sinners of incontinence who are in hell because of having this kind of disordered love for good
The Neutrals in Dante 's inferno, serve as a symbol for selfishness. As these people committed themselves no cause but their own, they are left to their own vices, separated from both heaven and hell. Abandoned at the gate, just as they had abandoned everyone throughout their life. This punishment it a form of uniquely adapted justice, as they are getting in the afterlife what they fought in life. Being selfish is one of the worst sins, as it requires an extreme lack of empathy, and cowardice, as there are angels, who sided with neither heaven or hell in the wars, so they too are left with these so called persona non gratae.
Judas Iscariot is in the central mouth, Brutus and Cassius in the mouths either side. “‘The soul that suffers most,’ explained my Guide, ‘is Judas Iscariot, he who kicks his legs on fiery chin and his head inside. Of the other two, who have their heads thrust forward, the one who dangles down from the black face is Brutus, there with the huge and sinewy arms, is the soul of Cassius. But the night is coming on and we must go, for we have seen the whole.’” (pg. 281)This imagery shows that these three sinners are the worse human kind, because Judas betrayed Christ and Brutus and Cassius betrayed Caesar.
14). Using torture as a way to extract evidence is an inhumane way to treat those under accusation.The argument that a confession given under these circumstances is legitimate, is a false claim. This is due to the victim's mindset being compromised from the extreme and extensive methods of torture. Another example of the unacceptable evidence used in court against those accused is the presence of the “devil’s mark”. “The belief was that the devil branded the bodies of witches with symbolic yet concrete corporeal malformations such as marks and growths” (Darr, 361).
The prisoners receive a thematically equivalent punishment to their actions in their previous lives. As the deeper circles of hell are populated by the worst inmates, the concept of contrapasso elicits exceedingly jarring punishments the further Dante travels. The nine total circles of hell are large enough to populate a lifetime 's worth of the world’s sins. When Dante is introduced to the first circle of hell, reserved for pagans, it is clear that the inmates are bound eternally to live in the Inferno, for even those who did not conciously commit sin, are forced to stay in this realm. In his real life, Alighieri was highly vocal about political stances.
Real versus Real C. S. Lewis’ The Screwtape Letters tells the story of Screwtape, a devil in Hell, writing letters to his nephew, Wormwood, who is trying to guide a patient towards Hell over God and Heaven. Lewis has in other works described his thoughts on subjectivism and an objective truth as well as how an objective truth is better than subjectivism. Lewis’ ideas about subjectivism are shown in his non-fictional works, such as The Abolition of Man, in which Lewis describes how an objective truth is better than subjectivism. However, in The Screwtape Letters, Lewis is describing the views of the devil, and therefore the descriptions most often become the opposite of Lewis’ beliefs. Yet, in some circumstances an objective truth can apply
The first bolgia contains the seducers and panderers, because they were so violent during their lifetime, they are violently whipped by demons. The second bolgia holds the flatterers, who are sunk in excrements, this punishment symbolizes how surrounded people with lies to get their way so now they are surrounded by feces. The third bolgia contains the simoniacs, who sold positions to people in the clergy, they’re punished by being hung by their feet, which are on fire, over a pit. During their lives simoniacs had a lot of power over certain people, and this punishment takes away their power to do anything. Fortune tellers and diviners are encompassed in the fourth bolgia, because they tried to look into the future their heads are on backwards while they walk backwards, so that they can never look into the future again.
The scene itself overlaps with ideas relating to biblical texts where ‘Dis’ is the pagan word for the king of Hell, being Satan (p. 121). The ‘Furies’ attempt to kill Dante (with the help of Medusa) for trespassing where such a violent death, being turned into stone, was previously attempted but failed upon Theseus whom arrived at the gates of the ‘City of Dis’ in the form of a mortal (p.
The ‘contrapasso’ in accordance with Dante’s Inferno is a process, “either resembling or contrasting with the sin itself” (Musa 37-38). The disenabling of the soul to enjoy the good that it had once rejected is evident as a result of the contrapasso for the soul has no room to grow therefore remains stagnant from the consequences of the choices made on earth (Sayers, Dante The Divine Comedy 1: Hell 120). This mere description of a damned soul’s fate already paints a distasteful picture of the nature of Hell