What is reading? Reading" is the process which involves looking at a series of written symbols and getting meaning from them. When we read, we use our eyes to receive written symbols (letters, punctuation marks and spaces) and we use our brain to convert them into words, sentences and paragraphs that communicate something to us. Reading can be silent (in our head) or aloud (so that other people can hear). Reading is a receptive skill by which we receive information but the process of reading also needs speaking skills, so that we can pronounce the words correctly that we read .
This strategy guides the students through the process of reading text by understanding and thinking about the text. Tankersley (2005) states that the Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) promotes higher order thinking skills and allow lecturers to know students’ thought process and experience. Moreover, it is useful for processing all types of text. Blachowich & Ogle (2008) states that the Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) gives teachers the opportunity to act as a facilitator by guiding students to think like readers. That is, they anticipate, predict and then confirm and modify their predictions as they
Intensive reading helps in attaining knowledge of vocabulary and idioms. Complicated and complex reading materials are used in this type of reading, so that the reader can extract new knowledge from it. The aim behind this reading is to understand the text completely, with a detailed analysis of the meaning of the text. As said by Maija MacLeod (n.d.), the materials used during intensive reading may be short texts, with a certain difficulty level which is chosen by the teacher. The skills developed through this type of reading include fluent and rapid reading, quick interpretation of texts and a steady vocabulary structure.
The strategy is the mental operations which help the readers to ease up the reading situation and connect the meaning with the written forms or symbols (Tarnraporn 2010; Abersoldand Field 2000). So the good reading strategy is that one aids the learners to solve problems. The students tend to vary the strategies, in order to make successful use of reading strategy, in which it is important to reach a fully understanding of the text (Hsin et al 2009: 1).“Learners actively use strategies to accomplish their language learning goals” (Neil 2003: p 6). Iranian
Listening, as we always heard of, is one of the most important part in learning languages. Since we listen to native speakers of the language, podcasts, or audiobooks, we start to imitate and make sense of the tones, words, and the sentences in that language. Furthermore, by doing this regularly, we become used to hear and talk more smoothly and use the desired language in a more organized way. Reading comes next after listening. Reading children books and short stories by a method called language shadowing is one of the best ways to create the same tone and accent as the native speakers.
Developing reading skills, they can practice more frequently, starting from what they do, such as reading stories or novels to create a love of reading and learning vocabulary. The development of writing skills they can starts from understanding grammar, part of speech and difference of writing styles. Actually,
It tends to develop the learners’ strategies as Nuttal (1962, p 23) claims that: “The intensive reading lesson is intended primarily to train students in reading strategies”. However, sometimes the learner may prefer to divide the text into parts and then read each part alone in order to comprehend it very well. In the same view, Palmer (1964) mentions that on intensive reading, the learner focuses on using the dictionary in which he has to analyze, compare and translate while reading texts. Therefore, the use of a dictionary helps the learner to progress in his language learning process. However, this may interrupt the learner’s reading speed.
Firstly, intensive reading is a way of gaining and acquiring specialist knowledge since it focuses on a single book or reading material while extensive reading is a way of acquiring general knowledge since it involves reading a number of books or reading material that is related or not related. Secondly, intensive reading is reading books or reading material with a purpose while extensive reading is reading a vast number of reading materials for pleasure. Thirdly, intensive reading method involves concentration, deeper understanding and interpretation of text and focus in a small area of detail in a reading material which is reading in depth whilst extensive reading method is reading the possible easy-to-understand books, articles and documents in a wide area of detail in a reading material which is reading in
This strategy including repetition, summarising meaning, organizing new language, guessing meaning from context, and using imagery for memorizing. The term of “cognitive” simply means the use of mind (cognition) to learn. In learning English, field which mostly used cognitive strategy is reading comprehension. Rosenshine (1997), states that the act of creating question for students to answer does not lead to comprehension. Otherwise, the studentd will do self-questioning that will help them to understand what they read.
The teacher should talk about things that are familiar to the students so it could be easier to understand and follow. That came up during the interview with the students, they enjoyed speaking English to each other about daily things. The students also said the main motivation for them was the knowledge that English is very useful in their everyday life and in their future. Learning through dramatizing and role play is a way the communicative approach advocates (Celce-Murcia, 2001, p.8). For example the teacher can let the students do a short dramatizing of a famous story they are familiar with, for example Red Riding Hood (J. Bylund, personal communication, 23rd of February 2017).