Vygotsky maintained that speech is a major psychological tool in the child's development of thinking. As children age and develop, their basic speech becomes increasingly complex. However, Jean Piaget holds somehow different ideas. His theory of cognitive development,which is guided by the hypothesis of how people interact with their surroundings and how they acquire new knowledge and intellectual into existing knowledge,described and explained the changes in the logical thinking of children and adolescents. Still, both of Piaget and Vygotsky assumed that the crucial role played by cognitive development in the psychological development of people can not be ignored.
Sociocultural theory argues that learning is a social process and the beginning of human intelligence in society and culture. The theme of the theory is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed everything is learned on two levels, first on a social level and later the child (Vygotsky 1978) .Social interaction plays a big role in the development of a child’s cognition functions and the key to understanding it is the “ZPD” zone of proximal development. The ZPD includes all the knowledge and skills that a child cannot yet understand or perform on their own but is capable of learning with help and guidance from an adult. As children grow their skills their knowledge grows by observing someone
These helpful people are called MKO, more knowledgeable others. ZPD is zone of the proximal development. Vygotsky divided children’s knowledge into three sections, respectively are what they can do, what they cannot do and ZPD. Here ZPD is the linking between “can do” and “cannot do”. I t means the potential learning area where children and reach with scaffolding of MKO.
Cognitive development Cognition is a central and thus crucial part of human development. Cognitive development is an inclusive and broad abstract idea that refers to a child’s mental activity which entails processing, remembering, organizing, acquisition and the ability to use available knowledge known, but rather by the manner in which information is received, interpreted, organized and altered. Our main concern is two key questions regarding cognition. Firstly, which alterations in cognitive functioning occur in children with their maturity? Secondly, what are the factors are responsible for these changes.
Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences. Hence, the attribution is the causal explanation and inference that the observers make to predict and evaluate human behavior. In summary, attribution is seeking causes of results. That is to say, people analyze their own behavior or others by utilizing their perceptions, thoughts, judgments and so on, and then they find out and explain the reasons for those behaviors. Therefore, attribution is an important component of human cognitive process, as well as an important influence on the formation of self-concepts.
Bandura argues that a personality influences and causes a person to behave in a certain way. However Bandura furthermore went on to realize that not only does the environment cause behavior, but that a behavior can also cause the environment as well. Bandura labeled this concept reciprocal determinism. The Social Learning approach (here and after to be mentioned as SLA) proposes that psychological processes; that is our ability to entertain imagery and the use of language in our minds, plays a vital role in developing our
Some of the important process and variables that Bandura use to understand personality is the Observational Learning that he believe that this is a key aspect of how we learn. Through this process we form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior ourselves. Also on a Personal Control social cognitive theorists emphasize that we can regulate and control our own behavior, despite our changing environment (Bandura, 2006: Mischel
Instead sociocultural believe learning occurs when the learner is actively and socially involved in their environment and therefore the environment needs to be student centred and foster learning with the goal of deep meaning making (Richardson, 2003). As a result there is a stark contrast between behavioural and sociocultural learning theory and their view on the impact of
There are different theories of communication, it includes: Cognitive theory: theory has as objective the study of intelligent systems, including the functioning of the mind. Cognitivism focuses the attention on the analysis of cognitive processes and the study of the possible forms of representation of knowledge that the mind can operate. Physiology, psychology, linguistics,
This chapter presents the relevant theories, related literature and studies containing concepts, ideas and background information that are connected to the studys theme which were reviewed to attain a clearer perspective and to arrive at an adequate background of the study. Relevant Theory The study will directly anchor into Vygotsky 's socio-constructivist theory (1978) the theory emphasis is in the mental functions that are acquired through social relationship; learning takes when child interacts with peers and adults in a social setting as they act upon the environment; children learn by internalizing activities conducted on the word around them. It suggests that children emulate behaviors and incorporate them into their existing structures of knowledge when they are exposed to new situations in which they can actually interact with others. Vygotskys theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes: 1.