(Deardorff, 2006) With that being said, knowledge is my substantial weakness while skills and attitude are my strengths regarding intercultural competence. Being able to effectively engage with others from different backgrounds and communities relates to skills and attitude that allows me to interact and work with people from different culture. For me, being able to listen, observe, analyze, interpret, respect and think beyond average alleviates me to engage with others from different cultures adequately. But my weakness does with the aspect of cultural self- awareness, sociolinguistic awareness and grasp of global issues and trends. For example, working on group project illustrate one ability to be able to communicate and accommodate beliefs from other
Emotional and cultural intelligence have a special relationship. The one’s self-awareness and empathy in emotional intelligence influences the cognitive aspect in cultural intelligence. It assists one in understanding which behaviors are acceptable in unfamiliar culture by analyzing emotional gestures. They also have empathetic for differences of culture. The self-motivation will maintain the one’s inspiration in exploring new culture.
Or does the word choice need to be a little softer to avoid face threading acts or any negative implications stemming from your word choice? Mitigation markers are a particularly useful form of indirect speech and are extremely powerful in face-threatening situations or just merely in daily life. Mitigation markers are a diverse set of conversational devices that are used to achieve indirectness. They can be used in expressions of opinion, information inquiries, and often times come in the form of “negative politeness”. Mitigation markers are used to soften the blow of a negative
Although many principles are related to changing behavior, there are two basic premises for a reinforcement to be effective. Those premises are either positive (being rewarded) or negative (being punished) consequences. If the result is a good consequence such as being rewarded, people are most likely to repeat the behavior. Whereas, on a negative consequence, such as being punished, the behavior will tend to avoid it. Three directions of reinforcement can be seen here.
Non-verbal communication is just as verbal communication which has various types and categories and if the person improves his or her nonverbal communication skills, he might get a better chance to read the nonverbal signals and increase the ability to communicate effectively with others. First category is kinesics in which it studies the movement of hand or body or face. Gestures are divided into three types which are adaptors, emblems, and illustrators. Adaptors are behaviours that are indicating internal states and targeted toward the self or object such as touching. It is a behaviour that is occur subconsciously and is not in control of the surroundings like shaking legs and clicking pens repetitively.
Stephen Krashen follows this with the next hypothesis, called the Monitor hypothesis, which expresses that knowing grammar rules can help writing in the language, but hinders communication in the language. His third hypothesis, the Input hypothesis, says that students learn the target langauge much better when they are given input a little bit above their level of understanding. In the Natural Order hypothesis, Krashen claims that there is a natural order in each language, where different aspects of the language are easier to learn than others. In the final hypothesis of his theory, the Affective Filter hypothesis, Krashen says that motivation, anxiety, confidence and other factors affect learning a second
Therefore, the goal in learning a second language was to replace proper habits with the bad ones. One major source of this problem as mentioned by Larsen- Freeman (1991) is “negative transfer” which means that errors caused by native language interference are to be avoided or minimized. Later on, with the advent of Chomsky’s theories, errors were no longer seen as evil and learning a new language was considered a rule-governed process. Svartvik (1973) proposed that errors occur as a result of failure in competence or language. Errors were to be seen as frequent in the utterances of L2 learners.
Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.
Ely (1989) defined Ambiguity of Tolerance (AT) as the acceptance of uncertainties. Such tolerance could be translated into the language learning context as an ability to deal with ambiguous new stimuli without frustration or without appeals to authority. It allows for indeterminate rather than rigid categorization (Ellis, 1994; p.518). In this sense, then students with AT, are expecting to feel comfortable with learning a new language with its uncertainties and unknown structural and cultural norms to be dealt with. McLain (1993), for instance, reported that students with tolerance of ambiguity are more willing to take risks and open to change (Rubin, 1975; Stern, 1975; Naiman, Frohlich, Stern & Todeso, 1978) and show endurance on tasks and higher levels of achievement (Chapelle, 1983; Naiman, Todeso, & Florich, 1975).
Control motives encompass L2 communicative behaviour aimed at limiting the freedom of the interlocutor. Taken broadly, this includes events such as directives from a supervisor, instruction from a teacher, and requests for assistance in the L2. Control motives capture occasions where power imbalance is more relevant than a continuing relationship between the interlocutors. The final set of influences at this level includes L2 self-confidence; perceptions of communicative competence coupled with a lack of anxiety define the self-confident L2 speaker. This concept is somewhat more specific than the linguistic competencies described at the lower level to capture the idea that