Rise Of Fascism In Italy

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Fascism was one of the three totalitarian regimes of the 20th century along with Nazism and Communism. In Italy, the political raise of fascism started in 1919 when Benito Mussolini, a former journalist of the magazine L’Avanti, founded the movement of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, which was “a curious blend of rabid nationalism and revolutionary syndicalism” (Kitchen 135). In 1921, Mussolini abandoned the socialist elements of the 1919 program to form a conservative and nationalist political party, the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista). Even though the party attracted always more people, mainly in rural areas and among the bourgeoisies, Mussolini did not gain power democratically gaining the majority of votes in national…show more content…
The myth of Mussolini differentiated the Italian fascism from the other totalitarian regimes in the Nazi Germany and communist Russia. For instance, in Germany and Russia the party, represented by a leader, had a key role in the organization of the society as well as in the symbolism of the regime; in Italy Mussolini was, alone, above everything and Duce meant the leader of the party, the leader of fascism, and the guide and Supreme Head of the régime (Gentile 136). On March 24, 1924 he affirmed that “fascism was the fruit of one will: his own” and the emphasis on his person created the premises for the distinction between Mussolini and the party (Falasca-Zamponi 56-61). Mussolini was able to exploit his strong personality and charisma not only to submit the entire Italy, but also his party affirming himself as the “complete, absolute power over everybody” (Falasca-Zamponi…show more content…
Indeed, Mussolini worked in the plan for a new architectural organization of Italian cities, and mainly of Rome. Indeed, Mussolini’s main project was the reorganization of Rome, which, according to the historian Richard Etlin, was “transformed into a physical setting to show that the Fascist state was the lineal descended of the ancient Roman Empire” (Turro, 17). Katherine Turron argues that the reorganization of Rome followed two different patterns. Mussolini indicted projects to excavate and bring to light the ruins of the ancient roman sites and bring back the architectural majesty that Rome had in the Ancient Empire. Indeed, the city planning of Rome was also a means of propaganda to emphasize the greatness of the fascism and its link with the ancient Roman Empire. He also financed the building of modern structures to be functional to the new fascist regime (8). Mussolini re-designed streets that could be functional to the parades and rituals of fascist society, and built public spaces that could glorify the regime as well as be used for sport activities, like the Foro

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