It proposes that adaptive coping comprises of confrontation-avoidance of loss and restoration stressors (Stroebe & Schut, 1999). Loss
Coping responses can be divided into three different dimensions or categories which are coping styles, coping resources and coping strategies. Coping styles are the basic and fundamental approaches we use to cope with challenges. A large variety of specific coping styles can be grouped into three subtypes. First, those in which a person take the attempts to change the negative emotions. Second, those in which a person attempts to change the situation where caused the stress and the last are those that just seek to avoid the problem.
Types of coping strategies: Problem-solving strategies: “This strategy relies on using active ways to directly tackle the situation that caused the problem: you must concentrate on the problem.” In this type of coping strategy the individual’s efforts are active. Their focuses on the problem and changes their emotional responses towards the stressor (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). The individual try to reduce the negative emotional responses that he might they experience because of stressors. They use this strategy when they think that their action has no effect on stressor so they alter their responses to the stressor. Emotion-focused coping: “Emotion-focused coping strategies are used to handle feelings of distress, rather than the actual problem situation.” In emotion-focused coping strategies involve efforts to regulate the emotional consequences of stressful or potentially stressful events (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980).
The main theorist behind the psychodynamic approach is Sigmund Freud. ‘Psychodynamic theorists look for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of motivational forces that often conflict with one another. They also suggest that many of these motivational determinants of behaviour are unconscious’ (Holt N., Bremner A., Sutherland E. et al. 2015 p.628). Psychodynamics and psychoanalysis looks at the ways in which the unconscious mind influences our behaviour.
According to (Krohne, 2002) who classified coping as a theory and grouped it into diverse categories relying on two diversified methods, either trait vs. state oriented technique or microanalytic vs. macroanalytic approach, has defined coping as “the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to master, tolerate, or reduce external and internal demands and conflicts among them.” On the other hand, (Folkman & Lazarous, 1984) integrated the definition of coping for both animals and humans as a progressive growth that causes a reduction in the reactions of animals as well as in human trial. While all these researchers have defined the concept of coping relying on different perspectives, (Pearlin & Schooler, 2016) have structured the significant and rigid aspects that form the concept. These aspects are positive comparisons, which are illustrated as the type of situations that people confront and consider as less intense when they actually seem to be harsh when they are viewed. The second element is selective ignoring, which is elucidated as looking around or seeking for a positive feature while being in a very disturbing surrounding. The third function is neither to prevent the event that induces stress nor to originate innate comprehension to questionable situation within the even.
It is more of a "two person, self-object" psychology. In sum, psychodynamic theories have emphasized the importance of ego psychology, object relation and self psychology, the predominant factors they have emphasized is on individuals’ personal disposition that helps them in maintaining resilience. Similarly, cognitive theories have explained the concept of experiential
Richard Lazarus first wrote about his transactional theory of stress and coping. He continued investigation into this field, issuing numerous books and research papers, some on his own, and some in association with other scientists, especially Dr Susan Folk man. The model assesses how major life events and daily bothers influence on emotions with the stress on Cognitive appraisal and coping with stress. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping is a formation for assess the processes of cope with worrying events. Transactional Model of Stress and Coping states a person facing worrying circumstances, first evaluates the importance of a threatening event and next evaluates the controllability of the stressor against latent coping resources.
The indirect elation between environment stimuli and the modes of adaptation is mediated by the coping processes. Individuals use two coping processes to filter environmental stimuli, which are called the regulator and the cognator. The regulator coping process encompasses basic neural, chemical, and endocrine channels that process stimuli in an automatic, unconscious manner. The cognator coping process encompasses four cognitive-emotive channels for stimulus processing--perceptual/information processing, learning, judgment, and emotion. Groups use two different coping processes to filter environmental stimuli, which are called the stabilizer and the innovator.
The study further highlighted that health behaviors are not considered as a coping style in the stress-moderators model until stress is perceived (Krantz and Hedges, 1987). (Endler and Parker, 1990; Greenglass, 1988; Pittner, et al. 1983; Weidner and Matthews, 1978) in their study propounded that the “type A” behavior pattern is positively associated with emotion focused coping), which is consistent with the aggressive and hostile characteristics of this behavior pattern. Other studies have identified that “type A” are also more likely to use avoidance-focused coping strategies (Endler and Parker, 1990) such as the suppression of aversive physical and emotional states. (Houston, 1981; Matthews and Brunson, 1979; Smith and Anderson, 1986) suggests that the suppressive coping strategies are used to allow the “type A” individual to remain in proximity to the stressor in order for them to achieve their competitive (or otherwise ambitious) goals; however, with the negative consequences for health due to prolonged contact with the
There appear to be three main coping styles that people employ when attempting to resolve or remove a stressor: problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidant coping. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping structure in relation to the personal values in adolescents; and to detect the possible differences based on their type of family. Objectives 1.To study the relationship between personal values and coping among adolescents 2.To study differences in personal values on the basis of their type of family. 3.To study differences in coping on the basis of their type of family. METHOD Design The present study employed a normative survey method which included administration of questionnaires to the identified sample.