Pharming What is pharming? The term "pharming" comes from a combination of the words "farming" and "pharmaceuticals." Gene pharming is a technology that scientists use to alter an animal's own DNA, In pharming, these genetically modified (transgenic) animals are used mostly to make human proteins that have medicinal value. The protein encoded by the transgene is secreted into the animal's milk, eggs, or blood, and then collected and purified. Livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, chickens, rabbits, and pigs have already been modified in this way to produce several useful proteins and drugs.
HUMAN CLONING-A Dangerous Invention Cloning is an advance technological invention for producing a genetic twin of living things, an organism that starts life with the same gene as its parent. The main phenomenon taking place behind this process is in mammal, DNA is taken from adult animal and then it is inserted into an egg cell from another animal. This egg then divides into an embryo. The embryo is then transported into a surrogate mother and grown to term. It is of two types: 1) Non-reproductive: such as DNA research; research on human reproduction and infertility; research on aging and on cogenesis; possible production of cloned human tissues and organs to be used in medical experiments and organ transplant.
This causes unwanted, and most likely harmful, alterations to the characteristics of the organism. Depending on the vitalness of the genes removed, this could even be mortal. Secondly, though DNA changes can easily be made to individual cells in a laboratory, for a change to be expressed in an organism, it must be made to all cells in that organism. This can be tackled by using a virus containing a programmed Cas9 molecule. The virus will introduce Cas9 into the cells it infects.
“Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of DNA to alter an organism’s characteristics (phenotype) in a particular way”(YourGenome 1). So basically, it’s the act of physically changing a molecule by giving or taking away a certain trait. The reason why scientists use genetic engineering is to make a
Animal testing is unethical due to advance technology. Animal testing is unnecessary for human products. In the United States, there are an estimated “26 million animals [that] are used every year” with poor conditions and daily trauma (ProCon, 1). Testing animals is not reasonable because of modern technology. For example, “cell-based methods, next-generation sequencing and ‘omics technologies and computational modelling techniques” assert to the extinct of animal testing (Burden, Natalie, Fiona Sewell, and Kathryn Chapman, 2).
Lab 3 – DNA extraction and visualization Journal -Madhu Thalari. 1.Describe the laboratory exercise as you interpreted it.? Ans: This lab has given me methods to extrct DNA from both plant cells and animal cells. The main steps that are followed in both methods made me understand the reasons behind them. In order to extract DNA we need break the barriers(cell wall and cellmembrane), remove water, protiens and other unwanted material, make sure that the chemical we used should not damage DNA that we need and add flouroscent material to visualize the DNA.
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) Introduction to technique: Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP is a method of genetic analysis that allows individuals to be identified on the basis of unique patterns of restriction enzyme cutting in the particular regions of DNA. This technique takes an advantage of the polymorphisms occur in individual people's genetic codes. Even though all members of a particular specie have fundamentally the same genetic makeup, but these slight differences account for variations in phenotype between individuals. Historical perspective: A British geneticist named Alec Jeffreys from Leicester University is accredited for the discovery and development of the RFLP method of DNA analysis and testing. He developed this method in 1985 as the
Introduction: Genetically modified organisms can be defined as organisms in which the DNA has been changed in a way that does not occur naturally by any reproduction procedure. The enviropig is just one of many organisms that they did experiments on to modify it to have specific (needed) outcomes. The reason for genetic modification is to be able to change a product or organism so that it deliver desirable traits. The enviropig was created to solve the problem of pigs not being able to absorb enough phosphorous from their diet, which then in its turn contributes to the larger factor of pollution. Pollution itself is a large problem in today’s circumstances, but there is another problem that creeps up with the pigs not being able to digest enough
To demonstrate, U.S. Food and Drud Adninistration found that 92 percent of drugs that followed animal testing was failed to be approved in clinical trials in 2004 (Capaldo, 2014). Animals’ gene is different from human that gave unreliable results by animal testings. For the reason that, animal models can only mimic the extremely complicated process of human, physiology, progression and carcinogenesis to a certain extent (Mak et al., 2010). Next, the health condition between animal models and patients are different. Animal studies have failed because of animal research are inadequate to detect rare events, animal testings usually carry out in healthy animals and the effect of the disease on the biological activity of test compounds is undefined while animal models exaggerated pharmacology well but not modelled well when specific infections involved (Cavagnaro and Lima, 2015；Polson and Fuji, 2012).
From a lawyer 's point of view I think that genetic testing should be done if someone wants or needs to do it. Genetic testing is the sequencing of human DNA in order to discover some genetic differences anomalies or mutations that may prove pathological. Everyone has the same right and we all have the ability to do what we want. Genetic testing has helped us get closer to discovering medicines for diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited life-threatening disorder that damages the digestive system and the lungs, this diseases shortens life span as well.
1. Antibody immunity uses B cells to secrete antibodies. The antibodies are circulated through the plasma cells in the body and bind to the transplant. They then attack the transplant because they see it as a foreign body. Cell-mediated immunity also works to attack the "foreign body" but is uses T cells that are directly attached to the transplant.
It goes against Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theory, making it an unnatural process. It interferes with the cycle of life; it manipulates death, playing a God-like role. Therefore, many declare that cloning is inauthentic. Cloning is ethnically questionable because it involves animals undergoing surgery, and may result in clones that have health issues. It seems like the $100,000 that go towards cloning could maybe be put to better use in terms of saving
Genetic engineering is changing the DNA code to express different traits. A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA that contains important genetic information. Recombinant DNA is the product after inserting your desired genes. The genes we hoped to insert in the pGLO lab were the GFP gene and the ampicillin resistance gene. GFP was needed so that we would tell if the ampicillin resistance gene had been properly placed when the bacteria glowed under a UV light.
Animal testing has always been a controversial and emotive topic. Each year, millions of innocent animals suffer and die in cruel chemical, drug, food, and cosmetics tests, as well as in biology lessons, medical training exercises, and curiosity-driven medical experiments at universities (“PETA Makes Its Case Against Animal Testing” 3). Think of any drug, cosmetic or household cleaner. Chances are, at one time or another, an animal suffered in order to put that product on the shelf. As many as 800 animals are sometimes tested, experts note, before a drug is determined to be safe enough to proceed to a clinical trial (“Animal Testing” 2).
These reasons have brought the animal rights group’s attention to criticism. The scientists and doctors treat the living beings with such disrespect, ignorance, and cruelty. They treat it as if it is a test object, but not a living being. Also, animal use cannot always be reliable and accurate. For example, many drugs that appear safe and effective in animals fail in humans, or cause significant harm and sometimes even death.