The Western Allies responded with the Berlin Airlift flights into West Berlin to keep the Berliners free and well supplied. Stalin was forced to end his blockade. Because tensions continued, the United States, Canada, and ten other nations formed a military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization agreeing to cooperate with one another in the case of Soviet aggression. In response, the Soviet Union formed its own alliance, the Warsaw Pact, which included the Soviet Union and its seven satellite nations in Eastern Europe. These alliances solidified the idea that Europe was divided between the free West and the Communist East.
Additionally, no military forces or machinery were permitted in the Rhineland. It became a demilitarised zone. The Allies also had a small army occupied on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years. The last key part of the treaty, was that Germany had to give most of their lands away. The territories that were given away include; Alsace – Lorraine (was given back to France after being annexed in 1871, after the Franco – Prussian war), Eupen and Melmedy (was given to Belgium), Northern Schleswig (was given to Denmark), Hultschin (was given to Czechoslovakia), Posen, West Prussia and lastly Upper Silesia (was given to Poland).
The Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was a symbol of the Cold War and a picture of the separation of ideas and government from east and west. The Wall was put up to keep the East Germans from leaving the Soviet half of Berlin and West Germans from bringing their democratic ideas into East Berlin. Although the Soviets built the Wall during the Cold War in an attempt to defend their nation from western ideas invading Eastern Europe, it proved to be the downfall of the Soviet Union and socialism. The Cold War was a competition between the United States and the Soviet Union that started after World War II. This war is called the Cold War because neither sides fired any weapons.
The conclusions of the war included the following; Germany was forced to reduce its army to 100,000 men, reduce the navy to 6 warships and was not allowed to have any submarines, destroy all of its air force, give land to Belgium, France, Denmark and Poland, hand over all of its colonies, agree to pay reparations to the Allies for all of the damage caused by the war, put no soldiers or military equipment within 30 miles of the east bank of the Rhine, and accept all of the blame for the war (War Guilt Clause.) Italy was given the two small areas of Istria and the South Tirol. The Adriatic coast was made part of a new country called Yugoslavia, which included Serbia and Bosnia. Other new countries were created; Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland were formed from land lost by Russia. Czechoslovakia and Hungary were formed out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919. Finally, on 11 November 1918, after four years of war, an armistice based on United States’ President Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” was agreed to by Germany. The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson. Europeans generally welcomed Wilson 's points but his main Allied colleagues were skeptical of Wilson 's idealism.
This essay will explore the key points of the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar Constitution and threats that loomed from both alt left and alt right parties. When Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles on June 28th in 1919 the Rat der Vier had decided upon the following rules of conduct. Not only would Germany and all it’s allies have to carry full responsibility for all casualties and damages caused by the first world war, but they also had to reimburse all winning parties for their losses. The day the Germans signed the Treaty of Versailles Germany was cut short by 13% of its soil and 10% of its population. The then German Rheinland was then occupied by the French, French troops were to remain on German soil until the Germans had fully reimbursed the French for their casualties.
Looking at the Berlin Airlift, the Marshall Plan, and the Truman Doctrine can affirm the success of Harry Truman’s foreign policy of Containment during the Cold War. One instance in which Truman’s policy succeeded was during the Berlin Airlift. After World War II, the US, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union split up Berlin, each occupying roughly a quarter of it. In 1948, the US, Britain, and France wanted to combine their zones. To prevent this, the USSR cut off all supply lines to Western Berlin.
In 1919 at the close of the Great War, the combined world powers convened at Versailles, on the outskirts of Paris, to define the conditions of the Armistice that ended the war. The product of their meeting was the Treaty of Versailles which placed restrictions on the German military, forced Germany to pay reparations to the Allies and placed full responsibility of the war on Germany. These conditions of the treaty created a loss of sovereignty of Germany and placed hardships on the German population. The combined result was a decline of social and economical capital in German society. The Nazi party capitalized on the conditions present in Germany and was able to rise to power.
“The Treaty of Versailles was supposed to create peace, but only created another disaster.” It forced Germany to lose territory, left germans outside of Germany, and caused serious economic problems especially by worsened the depression of the 1930’s. Certain parts of the treaty took away German territory and distributed it to other countries or the the other territory was used to form new countries. The Treaty of Versailles also weakened Germany's means of transportation and put Germany's river system under foreign control. It put restrictions on Germany's military as well. Germany was allowed only an army of one hundred thousand and fifteen thousand in the navy.
Germany had always been a divided country from the start of the Potstam meeting where that Berlin, the capital of Germany would be divided into four zones of occupation where the Allies (France, Britain and America) would occupy the Western Zones and the Soviets would occupy the Eastern zones. Whilst Russia’s aim was to cripple Germany, the other allies wanted to build it up into a strong country. It was due to this plan of Russia’s to cripple Germany that the Berlin blockade and airlift occurred. After Western Germany began to flourish in terms of economy the USSR decided to close all rail roads, canals and other forms of transport to Western Berlin in order to cripple them and 2.5 million people were cut off from food supplies. The result