This idea is called by most theorists as cognitive consistency. As the research continues however, Leon Festinger introduced the idea of cognitive dissonance wherein a person experiences a psychological discomfort if the idea that was introduced to him/her does not support his/her current beliefs and values. Since there is a bulk of information introduced to the public, there is a tendency that people will try, in various ways, to make enlign this information to their current beliefs and values. This is where selective processes comes
But, theologists, psychologists, philosophers, scientists and researchers have developed and are still bringing in various theories which attempt to estimate bottomless expanse of intrigue and fascination of emotions. While theologists study emotions or rather control of emotions as means of realizing the Supreme Being, the psychologists and sociologists have discussed emotions against its significance to the individual and society. While, the natural scientists like physiologists are more interested in the origin, evolution and functions of emotions. Human beings are a totally different species composed of emotions and reason. Whereas reasoning enables them to judge things with mathematical precision, emotions help them to understand and empathize with fellow beings, which make them
Personality psychology is the study of a human individual as a whole (Boeree, 2006). When one discusses personality it is important to note that one is discussing what makes a person different from other people. Differences are categorized by a number of factors, including biology, evolution and genetics, sensation and perception, motivation and emotion, learning and memory, as well as many different forms of psychology such as psychotherapy (Boeree, 2006). There are many theories regarding personality psychology and what the different aspects of personhood are, these are all based on different methods, experiments and theories. The vast number of theories are directly linked to the lack of scientific
Psychologists are concerned about the relationship between intelligence and personality, the individual attributes that could facilitate or compromise intelligence, and how intelligence manifests in different kinds of people. Assessment, on the other hand, is all about developing and refining tests that measure intelligence. Today, psychologists are increasingly becoming involved in these two areas. Some utilize assessments to gain more insight about the individuality of intelligence, while others draw from individual cases to develop and refine existing intelligence
Thus, motivational theorists build group rewards into their co-operative learning methods. In methods developed by Slavin (1994, 1995), students can earn certificates or other recognition if their average team scores on quizzes or other individual assignments exceed a pre-established criterion (Kagan, 1992). Methods developed by Johnson and Johnson (1994) and their colleagues at the University of Minnesota often give students grades based on group performance, which is defined in several different ways. The
Introduction Different people from different cultures have different criteria’s they use to define intelligence (Tlali, 2016). For many years tests have been carried out, theories been formulated to define intelligence but none of these theories are the same. One of the people who formulated their own theory of intelligence is Howard Gardner who is an American psychologist. He came up with the theory of multiple intelligences which differentiates intelligence into a number of modalities. In this essay, Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory will be discussed and also how psychotherapists can use some of his theories to improve their effectiveness.
A rating scale was developed by using the learning outcomes as the criteria for judging student performance on a numerical scale. Gronlund (1973) argued that some objectives required higher levels of achievement to master than others. This was reflected in the descriptors of the particular skill to be evaluated. The numerical scale 4, 3, 2, and 1, reflected excellent, good, fair, and poor respectively. In development of this rubric, assessment was scored out of 12, diagnosis and planning were scored out of 16, implementation scored out of 28, and evaluation scored out of 8.
Martin Luther King Jr., Serena Williams, and Isaac Newton all fall under different categories of Gander’s theory of multiple intelligences. There are other real-world example of people who fall into these intelligences. Although, Gardner seemed to be somewhat correct with his theory of multiple intelligences, some critics have argued against it. Critics say that Gardner’s model is vague and difficult to test. There could also be many other types of intelligences like “humor” or “romantic.” Intelligence is a big topic in psychology that has greatly expanded over the
Introduction Psychological tests are immensely useful tools that are employed not only by social scientists, but also by a variety of other professionals for, among other things, the purposes of collecting data regarding specific populations in order to select target audiences, note changes, and plan development strategies (Lowenthal, 2001). This is not to say that these tests are without fault; aside from the limitations that are specific to each test, problems often arise due to the mismanagement of data as well as by insufficient knowledge regarding how best to present obtained results (Groth-Marnat, 2003). Nevertheless, psychological assessment, when done correctly, is a valuable source of quantitative information and over the years a