5. Describe endocytosis and exocytosis and explain the difference between the two. Exocytosis is where cells expel materials by vesicles. Vesicles is another way that molecules move in and out of a cell. When the vesicle approaches the cell membrane, a section of the vesicle's membrane fuses with the plasma membrane.
The term pericardium is derived from the Greek prefix peri- (“around”) and kardia (“heart”), implying a structure that envelops or encloses the heart. Morphologically, the pericardium is a fluid-filled sac-like structure that surrounds the heart. Anatomic Structure The pericardium is a double-walled structure, made up of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. The fibrous layer is a single, connective tissue layer, made up of collagen (type I and type III mainly) and elastin fibers; it is elastic and yet non-distensible. This layer of the pericardium is held in position cranially by its membranous folds interdigitating with the tunica adventitia of the great vessels; caudally by ligaments connecting to the central tendon of the diaphragm;
1989). Carrier proteins hold on their substances and shuttles them across the membrane by changing the shape and channel proteins acts as a hydrophilic channel in the hydrophobic area of bilayer and helps the molecules to travel through. Accordingly, the factors that affect the transmembrane movement are solute concentration, temperature, pH, enzymes, transmembrane substances and surface area of the solution ([OSC] 2013). Further, there are two types of transport across a membrane: active transport and passive transport. Active transport is the movement of solutes against the gradient using energy and passive transport is movement of substances across the gradient without any work done (Campbell et al.
Primary Active Transport The energy is directly derived from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or some other high-energy phosphate compound. Substances that are transported by thus type of transport are sodium, potassium , calcium, hydrogen, chloride and many more. One main mechanism that uses primary active transport is the sodium-potassium pump. This transport process pumps sodium ions outward through the cell membrane of all cells ad at the same time pumps potassium ions from the outside to the inside This pump is responsible for maintaining the sodium-potassium concentration differences across the cell membrane as well as establishing a negative electrical voltage inside the cell. Secondary Active Transport The energy is derived secondarily from energy that has been stored in the form of ionic concentration differences of secondary molecular or ionic substances between two sides of a cell medium, originally created by primary active
What is the effect of surface area to volume ratio on the rate of diffusion of the colour from the agar jelly cube? INTRODUCTION: Diffusion is the movement of spreading particles from high concentration to low concentration in an environment such as a cell. This major procedure is used in cells to source them with nutrients, water, oxygen, and to transport unwanted wastes such as carbon dioxide out of the cell or to different cellular organelles. In this practical agar jelly cubes will be used to represent a cell. AIM: To model diffusion in a practical form and investigate the effect of surface area to volume ratio.
Sea star can adjust its osmotic pressure in its environment as they both have the same concentration of salt. The concentration of freshwater is higher than in the sea star. Freshwater is hypotonic to the sea star cells where dissolved salts are present. During osmosis, water molecules will enter the cells of the sea star thus increasing the osmotic pressure. This will lead to cell function disruption where essential organs are dehydrated and are unable to metabolize.
In large, complex, multicellular organisms, such as the human body, the circulatory system is essential to survival. Unlike single-celled organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, which are much smaller, the scale of the human body necessitates a large and complex transport system so as to ensure that substances can be transported around within it. Single-celled organisms, which are able to absorb oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment and excrete their waste products back out into the environment by means of diffusion (or osmosis, when water is involved), do not require a transport system, for this very reason. However, the sheer size of the human body and the distances that substances need to travel makes it impossible for
Active transport is a process in which both transport proteins and metabolic energy are utilized to transport solutes across the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient at different magnitude, allowing solutes to accumulate even when their concentration outside the cell is lower. There are a few characteristics of active transport which play significant role in solute transport whereby the carrier proteins possess solute specificity in enzyme-substrate relationship, energy is required to change the affinity of transport protein for transported solute at the other side of plasma membrane, accumulation of transported solutes against concentration gradient as well as remaining the solute structure unchanged during active transport. With the aid of active transport systems, microbes such as bacteria can grow efficiently in low nutrient concentration environment since nutrients can be accumulated within the cell with the expense of large amount of energy in the form of ATP or electrochemical
That includes alcohol, so when there is a frequent consumption of it the liver cannot remove all of it. Secondly, there is the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). "This is the negative effect of being overly obese" states Dr. King. NAFLD is when the liver contains excessive amount of fat which sooner or later becomes cancer. Lastly, there is the most common, Diabetes.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures. The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction.
Even though transport proteins are involved in facilitated diffusion, it is still considered passive transport because the solute is moving down its concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion speeds up the transport of a solute by providing an efficient passage through the membrane, but it does not alter the direction of transport. Active transport requires energy to move a solute against its concentration gradient. As in most other cellular work, ATP will most often provide this energy, usually by transferring its terminal phosphate group directly to the transport protein. With ATP, the donated phosphate group induces the transport protein to change its shape in a manner that translocates the solute bound to the protein across the membrane.
Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen. An intracellular blood buffer like hemoglobin is used because it binds well with hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide. The venous blood, or hemoglobin that isn’t saturated with oxygen, is a better buffer than arterial blood. The phosphate buffer system is important because it regulates the pH in the cytosol. Dibasic phosphate and ammonia are considered renal buffers.
VO2 Max varies in every individual (1). Women typically have a lower VO2 Max than men because men generally have larger hearts and lungs that pump more blood and diffuse in more oxygen (1). Oxygen is brought into the body through the lungs and diffused into the body through the alveoli, so the larger the lungs, the more oxygen can be brought in to be used (2, 5). Pulmonary diffusion, the rate at which gas is exchanged between the lungs and the bloodstream, is another factor limiting oxygen for endurance exercise (3). Another factor is running speed, as the more muscle tissue that is active at any given moment, the more oxygen that is demand (5).
1. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell, as it is moving from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell because the equilibrium potential of chloride ions is more negative than the membrane potential, therefore when chloride ions diffuse into the cell the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential will become more balance. If, by the process of active transport, chloride ions moved out of the cell this would create a bigger gap between the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential. 2.
If a diabetic consumes too much fat, they can gain weight which will make it difficult for them to manage their blood glucose level. The yogurt also contains 17.4g of sugar, this is a significant amount of sugar for a diabetic to be consuming especially for a snack. As a result of the high amount of sugar in the yoghurt their blood glucose level will be raised a lot and if nothing is done to bring it back down it can have severe effects on their health. Overall if the high amounts of energy found in the yoghurt isn’t burned off it will turn into fat, as well as the high fat already found in the yoghurt a diabetic can gain weight which will make it difficult for their body to manage their blood glucose levels. This can be detrimental to their health, especially if their body can 't make blood glucose level and they are consuming 17.4g of fat in 100g of