The Uppsala Model

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1.1 Introduction
The study of the internationalisation process of emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) has gained prominence in the last two decades as a result of the recent economic growth and transformation witnessed in emerging markets (EM). The internationalisation phenomenon has attracted a great deal of interest from international business (IB) scholars (Athreye & Kapur, 2009; Hoskisson, Eden, Lau, & Wright, 2000; Hoskisson, Wright, Filatotchev, & Peng, 2013; Jormanainen & Koveshnikov, 2012). The outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from emerging market was $11.9 billion in 1990 and increased to $170 billion on average between 2000-2008. By 2013 investment from emerging markets
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The experiential notion of the Uppsala model stipulates that the more knowledge a firm have about a market, the more resources will be committed and the psychic distance concept of the model ascertain that a firm would invest in close distance market before investing in psychically distance market. The Uppsala model has been widely adopted in explaining the internationalisation process of Latin American emerging market firms (see Cyrino et al., 2010; (Bianchi, 2014; Goldstein & Pusterla, 2010; Mihailova & Panibratov, 2012; Olaya, Olaya, & Cuéter, 2012; Sim, 2005). This thesis assumes that the growth and evolution of Nigerian firm are through series of incremental steps with domestic focused at the early stage and subsequently internationalisation (Johanson and Vahlne, 1977 and 1990). The thesis also suggests that the economic liberalisation policies that followed the democratic transition in Nigerian led to the emergent of large firms from different sectors of the Nigerian economy. The liberalisation policies also strengthened the firms’ abilities to expand their operations in the domestic market and beyond the Nigeria border (AFDB, 2013). The thesis assumption is that, the domestic market factors have played a major role in the rapid…show more content…
Following the introduction, Chapter 2 is organised into two parts. The first part presents the review of the general theory of firms’ internationalisation and the theoretical perspectives underpinning this present study. The second part of the chapter review relevant literature pertaining to the internationalisation process of EMNCs. Chapter 3 present the study background, the historic evolution of Nigerian economy starting from independence, the sectorial overview and the position of the Nigerian outward foreign direct investment is also discussed. Chapter 4 present the research methodology of the study, the rationale for case selection and the methodological approach for data collection and data analysis is also discussed in this chapter. The individual cases analysis is presented in chapter 5 following a similar case presentation structure for all the case companies with four main sections. The first part discusseses the sectorial overview of the firm, the second section look at the background of the case firms, while part three discusses the firm 's’ domestic growth and part four analysed the internationalisation of the case companies. The findings of the study are cross analysed in chapter 6 within the context of the research objectives. The findings of the cases are then analysed, compare and contrast while presenting the findings in form of tables and figures and matrixes. Finally, chapter 7 evaluate the

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