After implementation of NESP (1971-1976) Nepal depended on its own curriculum, and materials were developed locally. With the publication The Rising Nepal English daily, many students and teachers became aware of free writing. It has been used extensively from school to university levels for academic purpose. In the present context of Nepal English is teaching as a compulsory subject from grade one to bachelor's level and the importance of English is growing rapidly because English is global language, it is the language of science and
In the U.S the primary and only language is English. English is an international language that is a custom to everyone. It is also well-known amongst majority of the nations. English is also practiced and taught to people in Ethiopia. Almost all schools in Ethiopia are taught with English.
I was not allowed to leave my house besides school and I did not travel to different area of Ethiopia. The Ethiopia government operates on Amharic (አማርኛ) which is the second largest language spoken by the people of Ethiopia. I thought it was funny when I am from Ethiopia but I cannot understand another Ethiopians. When my family members came to visit us it was hard to understand them, because they had a strong accents and they pronounced some the words different from where I grew
Bilingual Education in the United States of America Context The United States of America, for the longest time, is known as a country composed of diverse ethnicities or people. Migrants come year by year and add on to the mix of this cultural blend of a country. There is actually no official language for the country but it English is commonly accepted as the de facto national language. Despite a relatively ignorable population of people coming from non-English backgrounds, education is primarily conducted in the English language. However, the issue at hand is not primarily at the cultural limitation but the fact that “monolingualism” is still the standard that is practiced in most schools in America.
As opposed to rote learning, where students are asked to memorize words and focus on structures and rules, the natural approach is a process of learning that focuses more on language comprehension and terminology usage so that they can be used in communication (Terrel & Krashen, 1983). Thailand’s education system was known to implement rote teaching (Wiriyachitra, 2002), while most countries’ education system had been utilizing more progressive teaching methods such as the aforementioned natural approach. However, some local institutions in Thailand have been showing some progress. Not only these institutions offered International/English programs, they are also leaning towards more western teaching approaches. In this regards, the following hypotheses below were
Bilingualism does not only refer to knowing phonological, lexical and syntactical aspects of language. Instead, it also demands being aware of sociolinguistic aspects of language use such as regional and social dialect. Hence, being bilingual is a matter of being communicatively able in two or more languages, being comfortable using one or the other and being able to code switch properly, according to the interlocutor and context of communication. Causes of bilingualism might also lead biliteracy. Nowadays, many people are raised or immersed in societies which provide a language different from their home language.
Speakers of different languages are constantly changing registers from their native language to foreign language. This is called “code-switching”. It is used either for expressing something that has not the same meaning as in your native language, for replacing a word or maybe just because we are very familiar with one language that we shift to by accident. Besides, “studies shows that bicultural bilinguals may exibit different verbal behaviors in their two languages and may be perceived differently by their interlocutors depending on the language they use in a particular cotext” . As the writer suggests, for these bilinguals “the two languages may be linked to different linguistic repertoires, cultural scripts, frames or expectation, autobiographic memories, and levels of proficiency and
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Definition and backgrounds of theories and concepts connected to this study are provided in this chapter. Reviews of previous studies on code-switching, bilingualism and computer mediated communication which are homogenous to this study are provided. 2.1. Bilingualism 2.1.1. Definition of bilingualism The notion of bilingualism is frequently connected to the idea of code-switching since a person should have ability to speak using two or more than one variety.
Some theories depict how component skills and processes become coordinated and transferred across tasks within domains (Anderson, 1985), but there is much less understanding of the coordination and transfer of skills across domains (Perkins & Salomon, 1989). Equally important are the skills and strategies of selective attention and decontextualization during learning. Sternberg (1985) calls these the knowledge acquisition components of selective encoding, combination, and comparison. But there are many other useful learning strategies (Weinstein, Goetz, & Alexander, 1988). Some involve global planning for learning or studying, some are mnemonic devices, some resemble problem-solving heuristics, some are mapping and structuring tactics that use key words or other cues detected in reading or listening, and some involve the metacognitive processes of comprehension monitoring or hypothesis generating and testing while learning.
2.2.6. English Language Self Efficacy Studies In the scope of EFL and ESL literature, there have been numerous studies concerning English Language Self Efficacy. These studies basically regard learners’ self efficacy levels and their correlations with peripheral components of foreign language learning environments; yet, the studies mentioned below also comprise external variables. Although, many of English language self efficacy studies reveal positive relationship among variables, there are in small number of exemptions. 18.104.22.168.