An attempt to propose a universal moral law is invariably a denial of the fullest expression of man’s elementary vital energies. As a consequence he condemned Christianity and Judaism as worse offenders because they are both contrary to man’s basic nature and thus produced what he called botched and bungled lives and debilitates man. Hence he proposes a morality that is not based on God, but allows man to realise himself and be free of any religious caprices. He therefore proposes twofold idea of good and evil, and that is, the master morality and the slave morality. 3.3.1 Master Morality (Herren-Moral): The master morality for Nietzsche is a representation of the ascending line in man’s development, in which man seeks the attainment of the fullest level and the highest goal of his personality and the realization of the fullest potentials of the human tendency and state.
J. L. Mackie on his writing “The Subjectivity of Values” develops two main arguments against the objectivity of values. Mackie states, “There are no objective values” (pg.175) where he expresses his belief that there are no objective, absolute or universal moral truths and argues in favor of moral skepticism, the view that people cannot have knowledge about morality. While actions naturally can be perceived as morally good or bad, there is nothing that makes them objectively good or bad. Mackie presents two main arguments to corroborate his critique in morality. The argument from relativity in which he claims there are no objective values and the argument from queerness where objective values would be different from any other thing in the universe (pg.
The will is strengthened and rebellious. This is the form of nihilism that does not stop at judgement, but goes on in action to be destructive towards the remaining vestiges of empty value systems. The strength of the will is tested by whether or not it can recognise all value systems as empty and meaningless, yet admit that these lies arise out of us and serve a purpose. This denial of a truthful world, Nietzsche says, may be a “divine way of thinking”. The active nihilist recognises that simplification and lies are necessary for life.
“A moral system valid for all is basically immoral.” (Friedrich Nietzsche). As Friedrich Nietzsche claims, the morality does not have a definite boundary between moral and immoral. The morality, “the principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong” (Oxford Dictionaries), cannot be defined like two different sides of a coin, but like a sphere, it cannot be told apart. In The Stranger, the concept of morality was approached several times through various incidents, which Monsieur Meursault faces. Monsieur Meursault, the protagonist, places barely any importance on morals and judging behaviors between right and wrong.
He is against society’s all the values. Nietzsche adopted Darwin’s thought “The powerful one destroys the weak one in the battle of life.” The aim of moral is not the equality. Because there is nothing equal in life. The period he lived is the slave moral and he rejects all the religions. Nietzsche’s Tragedy Second approach to Nietzsche is his tragedy.
The concept of free will is thoroughly of significance to German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche just as it is of relevance to all other existentialist philosophers alike. In understanding Nietzsche’s account against free will, it is of utmost importance to first be aware of his theory on human nature in general as the two are interconnected. For a strong believer in free will, Nietzsche’s philosophy might simply be regarded as the ‘other’ or the opposite view, that is, a determinist view of human nature. Nietzsche’s view, however, is not necessarily deterministic per se and it is wrong to label him as such since he goes beyond the belief that all our actions are pre-determined. While it seems as though Nietzsche explicitly denies the existence of free will, he often appeals to the notion of freedom, especially when he discloses his own ideal of humankind.
In the state of nature Hobbes depicts mankind to be selfish, riotous and have relentless ambitions. It’s an anarchical state with radical insecurity, no figurehead or sovereign and no form of social contract. His depiction of mankind takes the form of the Shakespearian character Macbeth, driven by ambitions and having no control over what he desires, which ultimately lead to his downfall. Hobbes believes that in such a state mankind will seek to create better conditions. According to Hobbes the most fundamental natural law is to seek peace, “every man should endeavour peace, as farre as he has hope of obtaining it”.
Will to power and political thought If we are to understand Nietzsche’s important contribution to political thought , we must examine the way he under stands the close link between immorality and idea of human betterment. Nietzsche as is often mentioned mistrusted a tragic worldview because he considered man in a significant ethical struggle usually ending in ruin or profound disappointment. He does not espouse a conventional morality defined by the antimony good/bad, but proposes a way of living ( an ethics) that is intended to better the human condition. However he sees this proposal as a rife with difficulties, making life as such a trial of suffering and pain and does not see an ultimate inevitable redemption for man but rather ultimate
Consequently, Hegel contends that Kant’s principle of morality remains merely formal because it has not justified the required content for instantiating the CI. Facing the narrow emptiness charge and broad emptiness charge, Kant’s defenders have clarified the validity of Kant’s morality by using different approaches by Kantian formalists and Kantian inspired non-formalists. The formalists defend a version of interpretation that holds that the moral law (mostly CI1)
In this respect, morality and Socratism are the expressions of a vital drive analogous to those which give birth to the figures of Apollo and Dionysus, as they are both connected to the metaphysical inquiry into the nature of things. Still, the Socratic worldview fails in seeing its dependency and connections to these drives, and thus fails to see its connection to life and its irrational kernel . According to Nietzsche, this mindset is the result of a pathology, as it gives too much merit to appearances while it excludes the Will from its view, making the former absolute and arranging them in a rational but insincere way. Socratism is then made of the same substance of the drives which inspire tragedy insofar as it is an expression of life, but, in both a literal and a metaphysical sense, it is the result of a sick form of this substance – it presents a metaphysical view of reality, just like art, but at the same time causes life to retreat within the safe walls of reasonableness, as by contrast art pushes the person to transcend them . In some respect, we can see here one of the seeds of Nietzsche’s later intuitions, and I believe there is no harm in employing them to elucidate this point.