The Enlightenment was an intellectual revolution through 17th century to 18th century. Caused by the monopoly of knowledge and belief from the Roman Catholic Church, the Enlightenment dominates the way of rational thinking and separate to different field such as art, science, literature, music and economics. Romanticism, which happened after Enlightenment, was caused by the disappointing of the result of the enlightenment. Romanticism is a literary movement which originated in Europe from the end of 18th century to the mid 19th century. Opposed to rational thought, Romanticism put the value of emotion and nature at a very high status.
During the Victorian Era, ranging from 1837 to 1901, there was a resurgence of medieval themes and characters in popular media as England sought a foundation on which to build its empire. Just as the medieval time featured a shift from paganism to Christianity (epitomized by the tale of King Arthur; he, a Christ figure, vanquishes the pagan, Morgan Le Fay), the Victorian Era saw a literary shift from Romanticism to Gothicism. Where once nature and the heart ruled, the media of the time skewed toward sullen settings and morbid characters. A fascination with the pain and death of women evolved, society using tales of female suffering to heighten the perception of their frailty and establish patriarchal dominance. Masculinity and femininity were a fiercely binary construct in which men were the protector, valiant and strong while the Victorian Woman was the moral and
Towards the end of the 18th century, Europe was agitating with a new movement, namely the Romantic Movement. Although we call the period in which this movement takes place the romantic era or the romantic period, the poets, novelists or playwrights of that era are surely not the representatives of their contemporaries. They were the group of people, who afterwards were called “ The Romantics”, standing up against the industrial revolution and all kind of suffering. Percy Bysshe Shelley, born 4 August 1792 in Horsham, England is one of the well known and important figures of the Romantics. Shelley’s eccentric lifestyle, his radical political views and the themes he covers in his works made him a member of Romanticism.
Victorian England How much do you know about Victorian era in England? Well, the reign of queen Victoria is one of the most influential eras, producing plenty of novelist and improving some architectures. Social class was also one of the highlights of her period too. This just proves that her era is one of the most significant one. The first factor of Victorian age that made England in a complete transformation was the architecture in that time.
Religion and Renaissance Art and Thought My research focuses on how religion influenced Renaissance art and thought. My primary thesis is that religion changed the way the Renaissance artists employed art as a transformative agenda to persuade social issues. Levine’s essay, “ Michelangelo's Marble David and the Lost Bronze David: the Drawings,” is the first source that depicts the political elements of the David sculpture. Conlin’s article, “Gladstone and Christian Art,” the second source, examines, in part, how the links to liberal Catholicism influenced the works of artists during the Renaissance era. Together, the two sources offer rich insights on the social factors that changed art and thought during the Renaissance era.
Before the reformists came into play, Roman Catholicism was the predominant form of Christianity in Europe. The Church was still in a high position of power from the previous period, the Middle Ages, a fact that would soon change. Famous figures such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII would question the Church 's authority and forever change how Christianity was viewed. After Martin Luther, there would be a new branch of Christianity known as Protestantism. He redefined the Christian Doctrine.
Increasingly, after the Reformation, people experienced a dilemma: how to reconcile their religious faith and the loyalty to their monarch. Marlowe, like many dramatists of the time, used theatre as a means to explore and question such paradoxes. For a society haunted by conflict and disease, a play like Tamburlaine represents a subversive, yet an accurate reflection of the age. By portraying a lowly shepherd who sheds common weedes in order to command kings, Marlowe implicitly criticizes the immobility of the social order implying that status is determined through actions. In religious terms, Tamburlaine’s ascendancy is controversial.
From Fantasy to Faith: An Exploration of Spiritual Dimension in the poetry of Yeats and Iqbal Author: Dr. TanveerHussain Iqbal Institute of Culture and Philosophy, Kashmir University ABSTRACT In the beginning of the 20th century,the Victorian scientific rationalism with its empirical world outlook was questioning the existence of metaphysical reality. Every new theory and invention contributed to the materialistic interpretation of the man-universe relationship. Darwin and Lamarck declared man as a descendant of the ape. The new discoveries in physics and astronomy dealt a severe blow to the biblical notion of the universe. It was the age of suspicion and every custom and belief was put to philosophical scrutiny.European colonizers manipulatedthesescientific
Several other reform movements came into picture like that of emancipation, child labour, women’s rights and evolution. It is considered an age of doubt and pessimism. Darwin’s much debated theory of evolution emerged in this that was first formulated in his book ‘On the Origin of Species’ in 1859. The Early Victorian Age was marked by the great writers such as Alfred Lord Tennyson, who was also the representative poet of the age, Matthew Arnold and Robert Browning. Browning is popular for the use of dramatic monologue, his very famous work, My Last Duchess.
The belief in the Enlightenment had become the clichés of bourgeois rationalism, literary realism then, even though obsessed with details, moves from a broader historical perspective, it responds to the larger European’s quest for rationality, which is the attempt to understand the underlining forces of the existence that Romanticism had explained with God. In this sense Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719) is likely to be considered the founder of the modern novel, the triumphs and defeats of an individual who is not the product of divine intervention but an ordinary man. Realism pushes literature up to new standards developing different narrative devices, so we have the sentimental novel (Austen) stressing the importance of sensibility,