It will depend on the type of disability that the child has. They may have a hearing or seeing impairment or a physical or learning disability. Children or young people may be subjected to prejudice or discrimination which could lead to them being bullied or treated differently, this in turn could affect their learning skills, self confidence and development. In the past the medical model of disability meant that opportunities for learning and development where few and far between. Today there is a different approach to disabilities and most settings look at different ways in which they can help with learning and development and to give children as many opportunities as possible. It is important not to stereotype a child with a disability, as this can lead to low self-esteem, for example a child with specific learning needs might be expected to do poorly in all subjects at school not just the ones affected by the learning need and this is not always the case. Since I have worked in our setting I have been introduced to quite a few children which have different types of disabilities. We aim to make sure that each individual is treated the same and included in all activities by adapting the activity to the child's individual
The categories of disabilities are; autism, deaf/blind, deafness, hearing impaired, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disabilities, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, visual impairment including blindness, and other health impairment. To be eligible, a student must have a disability that adversely affects her or his educational performance and must need special education in order to receive an appropriate education.
The Behavior Analysis Unit (BAU) is a segment of the FBI that look for criminals that are of high risk. They are a cerial killer unit. To fully know about the Behavior Analysis Unit (BAU) the units, risks, conditions should all be understood.
impairments would include disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida in the child or adult. In
A behavior intervention plan (BIP) is a plan that’s designed to teach reward positive behaviors. This can help prevent for stop problem behaviors in school. The BIP is based on the results of the FBA. The BIP describes the problem behavior, the reason the behavior occurs and the intervention strategies that will address the problem behavior. A BIP can help a child to learn problem solving skills and find better ways to respond in a situation.
Furthermore, and individual administering the WISC-IV will need administrative experience pertaining to testing children with a unique and diverse backgrounds (Plake, 2005). The WISC-IV will provide a full scale IQ for the child. This number represents the child’s overall cognitive ability (Plake, 2005). Any individual taking the WISC-IV will be tested on four indexes. The four additional scores that can be obtained are the Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index. There are 15 subtests that are distributed between these four domains. Of those subtests ten of them are core subtests and the other five tests are supplementary tests (Plake, 2005). The Verbal Comprehension index will measure verbal attention, concentration, and processing speed. Assessment for the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) includes Similarities, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. VCI subtests include Information and Word Reasoning (Whisten, 2013). Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) assesses the child’s fluid reasoning abilities, perceptual organization, and motor skills. Assesment for PRI will include Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and
In all IEPs there need to be goals set of for the student to work towards, which will help them meet the standards of the general curriculum, and aid in them improving upon their disability and hopefully reaching independence eventually. UDL is supposed to help the IEP team put together goals for the student to meet, specifically goals that are related to problem areas of the student, and that give the student a chance to learn what they need just like other students. This section in the IEP is very important because it lists out specific goals with great detail that Stacy must work on, including how she is supposed to meet these goals, how she will be evaluated for the goals, and what exactly has to be done in order for her to have completed the goal. These goals will really benefit Stacy because she will improve in the areas these goals are focusing on, and she will be able to keep up with the general curriculum in her own way without falling behind or struggling because of her learning
This section will examine the history of Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (PBIS). Then explain how PBIS is an important addition to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Followed by an in-depth look at what the three tiers of PBIS are and the purpose they serve. Finally the vital role of the school counselor is explored to see whether the counselor would be a good candidate to implement the School Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (SW-PBIS) framework.
Response to Intervention, or also known as RtI, was created to help detect the presence of a learning disability. The intervention program is a scientific research-based, base on a student’s response. RtI can only help the regular education students that has academic problems or behavior problem. For academic problem there are three tiers to RtI, and of these tiers tier II and tier III each has a four week time period for evaluation. In the first tier the teacher will let the student continue in wholes group instruction, while documenting the action of that student. Base of what was documented doing tier I the intervention will move on to tier two.If a parent request special education testing for their child the teacher immediately start in tier II, no matter if the teacher was in the middle of tier I or have not even thought about doing a RtI for that student.
In the Warnock report the term ‘ children with learning difficulties’ should be used to describe children are currently categorised as educationally sub normal and those with educational difficulties.Gillard, D. Warnock report 1978 - notes on the text. http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/warnock/ .
Norm-referenced tests are created by professionals, researched and published. They are used to compare a student with others that are similar to them. These comparable students are a norm reference group that is compose of those with similar culture, background, ethnicity, sex and other characteristics. Furthermore, students with disabilities should be included in this sample of student so that it will be a valid comparison for disabled students, too. Norm groups provide standard scores used to determine if a student is average, above average or below average, which allows for determining if a student is at the appropriate level, above or below it. Also, these tests must be shown to be valid or test the areas they are designed to measure.
Secondly, an RTI approach has the potential to reduce the number of students referred for special education services while increasing the number of students who are successful within regular education (Dobbins, Kurtts, Rush, 2010). Since an RTI approach helps distinguish between those students whose achievement problems are due to a learning disability and those students whose achievement problems are due to other issues such as lack of prior instruction, referrals for special education evaluations are often reduced (Dobbins, Kurtts, Rush, 2010). RTI techniques have been favored for reducing the likelihood that students from diverse racial, cultural or linguistic backgrounds are incorrectly identified as having a disability (Fletcher, Vaughn, 2009). Finally, parents and school teams alike find that the student progress monitoring techniques utilized in an RTI approach provide more instructionally relevant information than traditional assessments (Buffum, Mattos, Weber,
Every student with disabilities is also obligated to an IEP specifically for the student’s needs between the ages of 3 and 21 under IDEA. The IEP is created by a team of six or seven, depending on the age of the student. The six members are the parents, an individual that can explain the assessment results, keep in mind, the faculty of the school must not under any circumstances conduct the evaluations without parental consent. Also included is the general education teacher, a local representative from the local education department, the special education teacher and of course the student, who must be included in the meeting if the student is fourteen or older. In this IEP meeting the team members go over what has been planned for the IEP
During instructional modification they learned to analyze and decode words also, due to their short term memory, the skills they learnt had to be applied throughout the day, prompting them to remember to use the skills that were previously taught. The inclusion of the RTI process in IDEA 2004 has changes the way learning disability are now determine. In 2004 congress made changes to the Individuals with Disabilities Act implemented an alternative to identifying students with learning disabilities known as RTI. Prior to 2004, a student was labeled with having a learning disability only if a significant discrepancy of 1 ½ standard deviation between their IQ score and academic
The three criteria are intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, and educational performance. Intellectual functioning is usually measured by a test called an IQ test. In adaptive behavior, what a child can do compared to other children of their age, and in educational performance a child’s language development and communication; cognition and general knowledge is measured as well as their written language, reading and mathematics (Intellectual Disabilities FAQ, n.d). In my opinion both of the websites are valuable because they provide the definition of intellectual disabilities as well strategies for teachers and parents. They also provide signs and symptoms that can occur in children with intellectual disabilities. This is important in the determination process. These sites also provide great information on how intellectual disabilities are diagnosed. The Center for Parent Information and Resources website provides help information for babies, toddlers, and school-aged children. It also provides educational considerations as well as the different organizations and resources that are available to provide support for children who have an intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities provides the history context of intellectual disability and how it has changed over time. Also understanding the criteria’s in which a