The electron has a half integer spin, which leads to intrinsic angular momentum, a feature that all fermions possess. Pauli’s Exclusion principle states that two electrons cannot occupy the same time. An electron behaves as both a wave and a particle, as it can be diffracted but it will also collide with other particles. This is a Quantum mechanics property called Wave Particle Duality. The spin is
Compton scattering is the result of an incident photon with a high energy collides with a loosely bound outer shell electron. The outer shell electron is knocked out of the outer shell and this causes the initial photon to lose some of its energy. This results in a recoil electron and a scattered photon. When the collision happens the scattered photon changes direction and the recoil electron (Compton Electron) is the electron that was once on the outer shell is sent on its own path. The scattered photon’s energy can be calculated by subtracting the recoiled electron from the initial photon’s energy.
The particle-wave duality of atomic and subatomic particles is one of the most fundamental properties in the quantum world. Essentially, this indicates that small particles such as electrons exhibit both particle and wave-like characteristics. An electron has physical properties like mass, volume, and momentum, but it travels in oscillation like a wave and exists in multiple states- not localized in one location. Young’s double-slit experiment was the key to identify particle-wave duality of electrons. Normally, when particles are passed through the double-slit, only two bands are present in the screen (one from each slit).
The discovery of the nucleus helped him find that atoms are mostly a bunch of empty space. He measured the nucleus by measuring the angles of scattering and using mathematical modelling found that the nucleus is less than 10-14m in diameter. Most important, he discovered the proton because of that. He came to the conclusion that, “The alpha particles were being scattered by a large amount of positive charge concentrated in a very small space at the center of the gold atom” (Tretkoff, Ernie). This discovery is so important because protons are what define what element an atom is.
Radiation can be defined as the energy travelling through space which comes from a source and may be able to penetrate various materials. There are two types of radiation and they are the non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation consists of light, radio and microwaves. Whereby ionizing radiation can produce charged particles in matter, and ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. The difference between unstable atoms and stable atoms is that unstable atoms have an excess of energy or mass or both.
More specifically: The ability of an atom of a given element to draw a bonding electron to itself is called “electronegativity”, while the energy it takes to remove a valence electron from an atom and ionize the atom is called ionization energy. The ionization energy determines how likely it is that an element forms a bond and determines also the electrode potential. (The electrode potential is defined as the tendency of an element to gain or lose electrons in relation to another material. One could say that the electrode potential is a “relative” ionization energy.
All the matter we see around us are composed of different types of atoms. Deep in the heart of each atom there is the nucleus, which is composed of yet smaller particles, protons and neutrons (nucleons). Their behavior is controlled by three fundamental forces of nature – the strong force, together with the weak and electromagnetic forces. These forces combine to generate highly complex nuclear structures that are challenging to study and understand. This complex structure and energy based force is responsible for the large scale energy emission.
It can be thought of as a measure of the difficulty of removing electrons or the strength of the electrons that is bounded. Consequently, the higher the ionization energy, the more difficult it is to remove an electron. Thus, ionization energy is considered as an indicator of an atom’s reactivity. This type of energy is usually expressed in kJ/mol. Similarly as the atomic radius, the ionization energy follows a trend on the periodic table of elements.
What is light? It is an electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight. (slideshare, 2014) Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which ranges from radio waves to gamma rays. (Andor, n.d.) The wave theory of light A Dutch astronomer, Christian Huygens, developed the wave theory of light in the late 1600s. In this theory, he thought of light as a longitudinal wave.
Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3.
Electrons inhabit an orbital. Orbitals can be visualized as clouds around the nucleus. Orbitals do not mean that electrons travel in orbits, because due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, it is impossible to define with absolute precision, at the same time, both the position and the momentum of an electron. Each orbital may only contain 2 electrons. The s orbital (orbital closest to the nucleus) may only contain 2 electrons and then is ordered from p orbital (three sets may contain 6 electrons at most), d orbital (five sets may contain 10 electrons at most), f orbital (seven sets may contain 14 electrons at most), and then g orbital, etcetera.