This light then travels past the flame created by an atomizer. Where the atomizer essentially vaporizes an aqueous solution containing the metal ion(s), converting the input ionic solution from into atoms (IE: Na+Na). These atoms, are then shot with a specific ‘matching’ monochromatic light from the selected cathode lamp, whereby some the specific light is absorbed while passing by, This means that not all light will make it through the flame(IE less is detected then what is shot initially). After passing through the flame, the light is then filtered through a monochromator or prism, which works to select a specific wavelength of light, filtering all other unnecessary / unwanted wavelengths out. After this light is sufficiently filtered, the remaining ‘wanted’ wavelength of light is projected into a photomultiplier, which is an instrument that can collect, amplify and then finally measure the amount of light that was detected.
Detection and Purification A Monascus pigments is a complex of azaphilone compounds, which can be separated by using various analytical techniques. UV- Visible spectrophotometric methods The UV-Visible spectrophotometric method is usually used for the confirmation of pigments produced by Monascus with taking absorbance at a respective wavelength. i.e. Yellow pigment at 400, Orange 470, and Red at 500 nm. The pure solvent or extract of unfermented substrate was always used as the blank (Carels and Shepherd 1977; Chen MH, 1993).
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
Small marble samples were coated with gold. X-ray diffraction (XRD) The identification of the mineral composition of the samples was made by X-ray diffraction patterns, using a Philips X-ray PW 1840 diffractometer. The patterns were run with Ni-filtered, Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.54056 Å) at 30 kV and 10 mA. The scanning was limited from 2_ = 1 to 2_ = 80◦ range. Results and
Production diclofenac acid (DFA) by diclofenac sodium (DFS) hydrolysis DFA which yielded from DFS hydrolysis was characterized by FT-IR and DTA. Fig. 2 showed the information provided by the spectra FT-IR profile, which distinguished DFS from DFA. The DFA’s spectra showed a specific absorption peak at 3324 cm-1 which correspond to free OH stretching of a carboxylic group. Free acid was also presented as a peak at 1693 cm-1 associated with C=O stretch and 1157 cm-1 correspond to the C-O stretch.
Chemiluminescence is the process of generating light through a chemical reaction. This is due to the product of an excited electronic state that release a photon, or light, as it returns to the ground state. An excited electronic state is caused by the promotion of an electron to another orbital. The energy used to promote the electron will be lost either a radiationless energy or through the release of visible light, such as with the cases of fluorescence—involving the singlet electronic state, which has two unpaired electron with opposite spin quantum numbers—and phosphorescence—involving the triplet electronic state. Which has two unpaired electrons with the same spin quantum
The UV sensitive bands were purified using repetitive preparative TLC followed by crystallization. The identity of Ecdysterone was established by the following procedure: HPLC, with a Shimadzu LC-20, a Phenomenex C-18 reverse-phase Luna C18 which was used with a mobile phase of MeOH:Water (1:1) at 1.80 mL/min and the absorbance was monitored at 254 nm. Studies confirming the presence of a single peak of the isolated Ecdysterone, with a characteristic UV absorption at 246 nm were done using commercial standard Ecdysterone (Sigma) (Figure 2 A and B).
Introduction of NMR spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a form of absorption spectroscopy by which a nuclei under investigation absorbs the energy from an external magnetic field and resonances or excites from a low energy state to a high energy state. It involves the disintegration of spin state into two spin states of unequal energy. The emerging radiofrequency is absorbed in a magnetic field resulting to the magnetic properties of the nuclei which getting up from the axial spin. Hence, different NMR absorption spectrum can be obtained which contains one to several groups of absorption lines in the radiofrequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum depends on the particular nucleus. Apparently, the location of peaks
1.1. UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when the molecules or atoms or ions of a sample move from one energy state to another energy state. Spectroscopy is a general methodology that can be adapted in many ways to extract the information you need (energies of electronic, vibrational, rotational states, structure and symmetry of molecules, dynamic information). Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry is one of the most frequently employed techniques in Pharmaceutical analysis. It involves the measurement of the amount of Ultraviolet (190-380nm) radiation by a substance in a solution.
Laser provide intense and unidirectional ray of light. Laser light is monochromatic. Wavelength of light is determined by amount of energy released when electron drops to lower orbit. Light is coherent; all the photons have same wave fronts that launch to unison. Laser light has tight beam and is strong and concentrated.