After having dominated their colonies, the imperial powers “demanded for stasis” in order to gain stability of control and maintain peace over their colonies (Bhabha 86). Opposing to such a demand of the imperial authority, the colonies also requested for “changes” and “difference” within themselves to develop and undergo historical progression (86). Many of the colonies desired to achieve economic and political status equal to that of the colonizers. To be more specific, movements for economic development and political liberalization emerged throughout the colonies under the guidance of educated leaders. One example of such movements was the nationwide campaigns held in India by Mohandas Gandhi to ease poverty within the nation, expand women’s rights, undergo economic development and even achieve political autonomy from the British.
pire (British) Gaze in A Passage to India A story of cross-cultural resonance in postcolonial discourse, A Passage to India, plays on imperial misinterpretations and misunderstandings. Throughout the novel Forster employs a kind of cynical realism to highlight the impossibilities of cross cultural male bonding, between Aziz, the protagonist, an Indian Muslim doctor and Fielding, the English professor. As his biographer P.N. Furbank notes in his biography on Forster, E.M Forster: A Life, using Forster’s own words, “When (I) began the book (I) thought of it as a little bridge of sympathy between East and West, but this conception has had to go, my sense of truth forbids anything so comfortable” (106). Such a statement made by the author himself,
Colonial Mentality theory grounds this study in recognition of colonialism’s lingering impact. Colonial Mentality theory attempts to shift the dominant ways in which people perceive the world (Young, 2003). Young (2003) stated, “Colonialism claims the right of all people on this earth to the same material and cultural well-being” (p.2). Young (2003) asserted that colonialism “names a politics and a philosophy of activism” that challenges the pervasive inequality in the world. In a different way, it resumes anti-colonial struggles of the past.
He analyzes written works and speeches of imperialist like Balfour, Cromer, and Kissinger, whose speeches reveal the ideology basis used by Western powers to justify their occupation of the East region of world. This first chapter of Said works is relevant in a sense that it shows that even colonizers need to justify to themselves their colonialist action. That means that, even though colonialism in itself is mostly driven and motivated by greed and desire to acquire others wealth, the colonizers conscience still has a need for proper moral justification for their greed action. The justification pointed out on this first chapter, by Said’s reviews, are that Orientals have no enough intelligence and need the help of the Western in order to grow and develop both morally and socially. And that justification resulted in nothing more that colonialism in itself, as said by Said “The most important thing about the theory during the first decade of the twentieth century was that it worked, and worked staggeringly well.
“ imperialism is a policy which aims at creating, organizing and maintaining an empire (which is a state of vast size composed of various more or less distinct national units and subject to a single centralized will”. (Moritz B. 1973) another definition of imperialism as defined by Parker T. would be “ imperialism simply means the domination of non-European native races by totally dissimilar European nations.”(Parker T.1926). Colonialism on the other hand though often associated with imperialism as defined by J. Hobson as
This happened because both economic and military interests were too much at stake in the Straits Settlements and therefore only direct rule could ensure the British interest in the region. Therefore, Malaya was geographically ‘hybrid’ in its colonial practices as different regions called for different colonial strategies and can as such, constitute an interesting study case of both
A Postcolonial view of A Passage to India "But nothing in India is identifiable, the mere asking of a question causes it to disappear or to merge into something else". ( CH.8.P.83) A Passage to India is a novel that is written by the English author Edward Morgan Forster. The novel represents the relationship between the British and the Indians in India especially, in Chandrapore that sets in the colonial space. There are many situations where there are many differences in representing the British and the Indians in this city. The novel describes the setting of the place that is Chandrapore, which is a fictional city that is chosen because it represents different cultures and religions.
Analysis of Karma In the following assignment I will be analysing the text Karma by KUSHWANT SINGH. In my analysis I will look at Mr. Mohan´s view on the British, and how they in contrast see him. This text contains a bit of irony, and shows the difference in status between the British people and the native Indians, in the British colony of India. This text is also interesting to compare to the movie: A passage to India. The plot of the story is realistic and could very well have happened in the early 1900.
Literature of the Margin, Dalit and the Subaltern came into existence as a result of the conflicts and clashes between the marginalized, ruled class and the ruling dominant class and as a strong reaction against the imperialistic tendencies, socio-cultural racial and political hegemony of the white British rulers across the entire Europe. The prevailing contradictions, conflicts and paradoxes inherent in the ties between the whites and the non-whites, between the upper caste and the lower one, and between the privileged and the underprivileged are at the core of the margin-centre perspective. A Passage to India by E.M. Forster, published in 1924, brings into sharp focus the background of multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-religious landscape