He also disrespects O’Brien as he vividly celebrates his shooting, using italics on the word did to create emphasis. The narrator does not speak in this entire story, demonstrating his clear shock and guilt after the situation. Azar targets a clearly shaken narrator, and draws attention to the event that he is clearly ashamed, and of spits in the face of their mutual
Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Infallibilism The philosophical term infallibilism is the argument that knowledge needs individuals to satisfy some level of infallibilism condition. However, the aspectsinfallibilism and fallibilism are often used in the literature of epistemology. Both terms are rarely defined and because of this, they receive diversified meanings that an individual may find the statements to be contradicting. All epistemologists virtually endorse the aspect of fallibilism. Despite the dramatic variations in the substantive accounts of the epistemologists, they accept that the Gettier Problem can only be solved when a belief is not conflicted with warranty and false, which is the definition of infallibilism.
Literary texts have special features than other texts. Grice’s maxims can be considered as the borderline between the literary text and normal (conventional) text. If these maxims were broken then we will get a literary text. They can be broken by deviation and parallelism. By this the reader can find the aesthetic touches in the text.
The seemingly complex concept of punctuation marks proves to be more simplistic than many may take at face value. Punctuation allows readers to understand the meanings and attitudes that are expressed in the written text. The punctuation marks, including dashes, apostrophes, ellipsis, and colons, are often misused and misunderstood. Because of this misusage, there is often a misunderstanding of what is trying to be conveyed. With a more clear understanding of the purpose and meaning of punctuation marks, more punctuation marks should be used in a grammatically correct way.
This is due to two factors; the ability the narrator has to explain things, like prior circumstances in order to explain things like motives and the ability the narrator has to be unreliable and tell the reader lies. In the chapter, “The Sweetheart of Song Tra Bong” the reader can see both of these occur at the same time. This happens when Rat Kiley tells the reader that all of the other information is stuff that he heard and didn’t see for himself, meaning that it could be completely false. Kiley states “There’s a few other things I heard secondhand. Third Hand actually.”(O’Brien 109) This statement by Rat Kiley does both, as he gives the reader background information about the stories that follow, but at the same time, it also gives the story a sense of unreliability as he states that the rest of the story is entirely speculation.
back-grounding, omission and presupposition. This is usually a level where textual manipulations have powerful effect. At this level readers have to first analyze the genre of the text. Whether the features of that text match with that particular feature of genre in which it is written. In this stage critical discourse analyst has to analyze the features of that genre and he has to see whether something is left out by the writer or not.
The intended effect is that of objectivity but the excessive use of Modal elements make the texts appear more subjective (Droga and Humphrey 2003. Cited in Arancon, 2013). The Subject and Finite in the Mood Block are the pivotal elements of the clause that make all types of interaction possible. The order of the Subject and Finite is a grammatical sign of the type of exchange taking place and determines whether the clause is declarative, interrogative or imperative. Writers need to be made aware that the Mood Block accounts for some of the most challenging aspects for the accurate use of English such as subject-verb agreement, the presence of auxiliary verbs, the appropriate use of tense, the appropriate use of Mood tags, etc.
Similarly, Reception theory explores the dynamics of the process of reading as a complex movement and its gradual unfolding through time. Wolfgang Iser, of Constance School of Reception Aesthetics, discusses in THE ACT OF READING (1978), the techniques, the allusionary skills and the themes which a text put to work to illustrate the point that to read at all, one needs not only to know the conventions and literary techniques inherent in a specific work but must also be conscious of rules that govern its production of meaning otherwise the domain of criticism would become completely chaotic and any text would end up becoming a collage of various inconsistent readings. However, American critic, Stanley Fish argues
It is, in fact, this feature of writing that gives meaning to the written words. An error in punctuation can convey a completely different meaning to the one that is intended. For example: Your book, John. Your book, John? Although the sentences are the same, the two sentences mean completely different things because of the question mark and full stop.
Nevertheless, such way of incidental learning may put L2 learners into a lexical plight that brings more harm than good in terms of vocabulary acquisition. Scholar Batia Laufer has addressed this concern by showing the strategy of inferencing should be reconsidered in a more comprehensive prospective. Followings are the problems and limitations aroused by second language reading suggested by