These elements are seen in many pieces of literature. Nikolai Gogol’s "The Overcoat" demonstrates Marxism through clashing social classes, the importance of material items, and unequal pay. One important factor to "The Overcoat" is the clashing social classes. Akaky Akakyevitch, the main character, is part of the proletariat. He works as a copier which is not a great occupation but he loves it.
Marx had a huge impact of Russian literature, especially, Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. Crime and Punishment used great use of the Marxist Theory. While the bourgeois earned value through overpowering the lower class. This novel best embodies the Marxist Theory because it is a proclamation of a proletariat, being Raskolnikov is not is the right place in society, struggling from deep poverty and craves the fighting against the common good in society. Johnson 2 As Alyona in Crime and Punishment
The latter consists of the base structures needed for the said societies production and operation; structures such as transport, energy and healthcare are part of the infrastructure. Institutions such as the justice system, military and family, among others, make up the superstructure. Marx viewed the 'state' as being in a relationship with society as one of control and subservience, respectively, therefore creating conflict. In Marx's theory of the state, he postulates the terms of mode/means of production, where the labour force are oppressed by the elite and owners of the production. He conferred that there were different stratifications, which formed economic bases, creating an ideological superstructure which consisted of juridical and
Finally, a connection will be drawn between such Marxist analysis and state of the Capitalist system as it exists in the current South African socio-political and economic climate, examined vis-à-vis a contemporary newspaper article, Business rescue for Lily Mine only option, says Solidarity, alluding to such structures and contradictions. Marx achieved an unrivalled complexity in his analysis through his use of the materialist dialectic, which sought a material and economic basis in reality in order to understand the ‘superstructure’ – those elements of ideology and other institutional aspects (Best, 2003). To properly outline the structural components of Capitalism, one must begin with its smallest functional unit founded in the material world – the
Conflict theories, such as Marxism and feminism focus on power struggles and differences, for example, class conflict, and for the most part question historical ideologies. It is a macro level critique and study of society (Collins, 1971). Many sociologists and thinkers have defined the class in different ways. Marx defined class in terms of the political and economic structures of power, he believed that power came directly from economic and political conditions and the people with power usually exploit the ones without power. He divided society into three classes the bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie and the proletariat (Grant, 2001).
As mentioned previously Feminists link Frankenstein to several gender inequality issues, like Elizabeth being dependent to Victor. Marxist, however, link it to the everlasting conflicts between the Bourgeoisie and the Working Class – Victor ‘owning’ the Creature.
The theory is known as the conflict theory or the Marxist theory or Marxism, which is more concerned about the class struggle within the society, and how capitalism is not healthy for any society. Therefore, within the context of this essay, a close analysis on Karl Marx’s concept of capitalism will be conducted, specifically in relation to two of the main social problems. The main focus will be on how capitalism have an impact on the persistence of inequality and poverty within different societies, whether in a positive or negative manner. Bearing that in mind, most aspects of Marx’s concept of capitalism will be weighed in regards to the impact of the concept on the two issues, namely; inequality and poverty. A thorough analysis and evaluation will be carried out throughout this essay.
In the late 1800s, Frederick Engels and Karl Marx authored The Communist Manifesto to voice the beliefs of working men’s associations, workers who no longer could stand oppression by a ruling class. Marx’s fundamental proposition of The Communist Manifesto, as summarized by Engels was, “that in every historical epoch, the prevailing mode of economic production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily following from it, form the basis on which is built up, and from which alone can be explained, the political and intellectual history of that epoch...” (Marx, 53). Through this claim, Engels proposes that the way people produce and exchange products and services in the economy affects the arrangement of people in society and both in turn influence the government of the society as well as people’s beliefs and ways of thinking. I will that Marx and Engels’ claim is an oversimplification, as the idea that Engels and Marx proposed, that the economy is the reason for the arrangement of society, which then explains the political and intellectual history of the time period, is missing the key factor of human behavior as the driving force behind the economy. Marx’s theory of history describes the journey of society through six distinct stages: primitive communism, slave society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism, and communism.
Fariba is one of first non-submissive females of the novel and was portrayed as the woman with a progressive mindset. However, after a long time of struggling against the society and the loss of her two sons in addition to that, her role as an ideal feminist challenger is no longer dominant. Much like Mariam, Laila is a victor. The difference between Mariam and Laila is Laila has been defying the norms of the culture throughout her life, unlike Mariam, who was submissive for the early years of her lifetime. Laila represents a hope for woman in the male dominated culture, as she goes on to escape from her abusive husband, finds happiness, pursues education, and contributes back to the society postwar.
In terms of analyzing the relationships between slaves and slaveholders in the ancient time or the feudal system of the Medieval, there was always the unequal treatment of people and the exploitation of the work of lower classes. The theories of social inequality offered by Marx and Weber both reflect the idea of social class as a construct of the society. While Marx traces the roots of the issue of the division to the antiquity and the feudal times claiming that the modern capitalism is only a transformation of the previous orders, Weber emphasizes a more complicated construction with relation to the social class. Identifying also the impact of other factors, Weber promotes a more comprehensive understanding of the issue within the modern society. In any case, in spite of the reasons and the foundation of the inequality issue and its foundational meaning in the development of the civilization, it still might be necessary to reduce the impact of class division on the lives of