In the same way, people who hear voices and/or sounds cannot differentiate what is real and what is not, causing them to act like Jacob. Clearly, people with schizophrenia might become a victim of auditory hallucinations. People who have schizophrenia live a hard life. Whether it is experiencing many different symptoms or when they might even “withdraw from the outside world” (“Schizophrenia” 1). Jacob himself displays two severe symptoms of schizophrenia such as showing bizarre actions or having auditory hallucinations.
Negative symptoms are highly prevalent amongst schizophrenia patients and therefore, may help predict poorer social outcomes, such as social stagnation (Dlabac-de Lange, Knegtering & Aleman,
In Nightwalk, by Aleem Hossain, it is clear the narrator has some type of mental illness. The hallucinations, brimming rage, psychotic depression, and many other problems show that he, the narrator, has a severe schizoaffective disorder. A schizoaffective disorder is where people have symptoms of both schizophrenia (have changes in behavior and other symptoms -- including delusions and hallucinations -- that last longer than 6 months. It usually affects them at work or school, as well as their relationships) and a mood disorder, like depression (feelings of severe despondency and dejection) or bipolar disorder (a mental disorder marked by alternating periods of elation and depression). The suicidal thoughts and quick behavioral changes show
Furthermore, the pervasive stigma against them leads to increased cost and poorer health outcomes. Instead of looking at a patient’s violent behavior on the superficial level, one should take into account the patient’s diagnosis and past experience. For instance, violent behavior is prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and it is also the most common reason for the admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit (Krakowski, Czobor, Citrome, Bark, & Cooper, 2006). Many are also under-diagnosed and under-treated, resulting in wide treatment gaps. Most of them require psychoanalytic treatment to cope with their violent behavior.
What is Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects about one percent of the population (Marley, 2014). It affects both males and females and the average onset of the disease is in the late teens and early adulthood (Miller & Mason, 2010). Symptoms that characterize this disease include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and impaired cognitive ability (Patel et al., 2014). These symptoms can occur in combination and can be chronic and severe for many patients (Marley, 2014.
Depression has been one of the major mental health issues for adolescents. Depression causes adolescents to feel sad and lose interest in activities they were once interested in. Adolescents experience many changes during their adolescence years. Due to their changes, adolescents experience several emotional changes. According to Mayo Clinic (2017), some issues that causes adolescents’ constant emotional changes are puberty, academic expectations, and changes of their bodies.
People who suffered from depression will experience symptoms such as suicidal thoughts, sleep disturbance, changes in appetite, slowed thinking and poor concentration. (Miller & Reynolds, 2002,
Juveniles whom experience disrupted thinking experience a mild case of psychosis. The length of their stay in solitary will determine the severity of their case. Maztner (2010) notes, “the stress, lack of meaningful social contact, and unstructured days can exacerbate symptoms of illness or provoke recurrence.” Adolescents experiencing hallucinations are reported and placed on medication resulting in them becoming medically ill patients for the remainder of their life (Corcoran, 2016). Facilities have stated approximately fifteen percent of the population incarcerated has been diagnosed with a mental illness.
Even, occurrence of suicide is greater in person with hearing impairment compared to blind person.(Narimani et al., 2014). Diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder according DSM-5 A.A noticeable and constant fear about one and more social situations or circumstances, in which an individual is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible analysis/evaluate by others. Examples comprise social interaction (having a conversation), being observed (drinking or eating) or performing in front of others (giving a speech and presentation).
In some cases drug use is a trigger for the symptoms of schizophrenia and can lead to exacerbation of these symptoms. Marijuana in particular is now known to significantly worsen symptoms and well as cause signs of psychosis to appear at a much younger age (Foti et al., 2010). Those with schizophrenia are more likely to develop addictive behaviours than those without the disorder and this may be a result of irregular dopamine levels. Dopamine is an important part of the reward system and increased levels are produced as a result of many addictive drugs. Therefore, it is no surprise how those with schizophrenia are much more likely to exhibit addictive behaviour due to the abnormal levels of dopamine that may be present in the brain resulting from the differing chemical structure of the schizophrenic
The individual may engage in behaviors which skirt the edges of the law, or manipulate others (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Usually Those who are diagnosed with Antisocial personality disorder have also been diagnosed with Conduct disorder at a young age. When having this disorder, people tend to act on impulse instead of thinking things through which may cause them to make bad decisions. People tend to be irresponsible, which has been shown throughout the defendant’s
Owen (2014) examined English-language films with at least one main character with schizophrenia, released between 1990 and 2010; 42 characters from 41 films were identified, the majority of whom were male and Caucasian (Owen, 2014). Likewise, Goodwin’s 2014 study of contemporary horror films suggests the vast majority of mentally ill characters depicted were men (Goodwin, 2014). This can be due to the fact that traits such as violence are traditionally attributed to men, rather than to women (Holtzman & Sharpe, 2014; Glascock, 2001). Another factor is that men with mental illnesses often externalise their feelings, through their behaviour for example, while women with mental illnesses are more likely to internalise their feelings (Wilhelm, 2014; Dingfelder, 2011; Rowan,
Mental health is recognized as a principal determinant of individual well-being and family relationships in today’s society. Most psychiatric disorders begin in childhood or adolescence, increasing the risk for poor physical health, problems in social relationships, reduced psychological well-being, and financial difficulties. There have been studies to suggest that, across the life course, mental disorder prevalence varies significantly according to race and ethnicity. In a study conducted by (Barrett, D. and Katsiyannis, A) the authors used a sample from the S. Carolina Juvenile Justice Agency to examine the question of race differences in repeat offenders.
These are the most common positive effects (Freye, 2007). The negative effects of MDMA use in psychotherapy include: enhanced anxiety, amnesia, frequent panic attacks, depression, mania (excessive excitation), suicide, insomnia, nightmares, depersonalization (when a person feels oneself unreal), derealization (when the surroundings seem unreal), hallucinations, flashbacks, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), paranoia and other persistent false states, automatic or repetitive behavior, dissociative disorders, irritability and aggression with mood changes, and increased risk of problems with other drugs. There have been identified several MDMA effects on brain chemistry which may improve the psychotherapeutic process. It increases levels of oxytocin, the hormone in the brain that acts as a neurotransmitter.