Theoretation Theory: Needs And Gratification Theory

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The researchers are trying to seek answers by using this three theories such as uses and gratification theory, cognitive theory of multimedia learning and e-learning theory.
USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY
This theory is a technique used as to know how people use media to fulfill their goals such as knowledge, interaction, relaxation and entertainment. It is also centered in users and audience approach.
According to this theory, the needs and gratification can be classified into five categories and they are:
Affective Needs – from the word “affection,” this talks about emotions, pleasure and other mood of the people by watching soap operas, drama series, movies and some shows that triggers a person’s mood.
Cognitive Needs
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People with this kind of needs uses the media to gain reassurance to their status and credibility by watching advertisements such as a shopping ad for fashion trends to fit in with other people.
Social Integrative Needs – this need is practiced by almost all teenagers nowadays. This is where people use media to interact through social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook to satisfy their needs.
Tension Free Needs – in this type of need, people use media as a form of escape from tension and to relieve stress. People with this kind of need tend to watch entertaining shows and to listen to their preferred songs to avoid boredom and stress. As internet is another source of media, the researchers are including this theory in this study.
COGNITIVE THEORY OF MULTIMEDIA LEARNING This theory, developed by Richard E. Meyer, focuses on the idea that an individual learns more deeply than words and pictures alone and that it builds connections between words and pictures. This theory has three assumptions when it comes to learning media and these are:
Dual Channel – according to this assumption, our working memory has two separate channels for auditory and visual
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E-LEARNING THEORY This theory is composed of cognitive science principles for effective multimedia learning through electronic educational technology. The empirically established principles are:
Multimedia Principle – the use of combining two in any of the audio, visuals, and text in order to have a better understanding than using just one or all three.
Modality Principle – through this, learners might learn effectively if visuals are accompanied by audio narration rather than with onscreen texts.
Coherence Principle – learning is effective if the fewer learners know about the presentation content, the easier for them to not get distracted if shown any unrelated things in the presentation.
Contiguity Principle – deeper learning occurs when relative information is presented closely together.
Segmenting Principle –learning might be effective if long lessons are broken down into shorter lessons.
Signaling Principle – by the use of visual, auditory, or temporal cues to make the learners focused in the critical elements of the lesson, effective learning might be

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