This helps the kids understand the severity of the situation a lot better since they had already learned about the KKK. The theory relates to PST numbers 1a, 1b, and 1c. These professional standards all have to do with knowing the material well and making the appropriate connections to other things. The second principle in the cognitive learning theory is “effective instruction encourages learners to coordinate their various mental processes” (Fetsco and McClure, CLT #2). An example of this theory being used in Codell’s classroom is when they celebrate “Cajun Christmas”.
For them, “learning is the network”. The connectivism theory emphasizes that learning experience is mainly focused on the learner, not the teacher nor the curriculum. Learners in this theory serve as instruments in designing the learning content and determining the communication levels, and persons who can take part (Kop and Hill, 2008). Furthermore, Siemens (2006, as cited in Goldie, 2016) clearly states that learning does not only exist inside but also outside each learner , thus, it may be inherent in non-human devices. These devices such as computers and software serve as facilitators of making connections between people, ideas, and information.
The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment. There are three basic components to Piaget's cognitive theory: 1)schemas (building blocks of knowledge), 2) adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation), 3)Stages of Development: (sensorimotor, preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal
Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following: • The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing. • Learning can occur without a change in behavior or learning may not necessarily be shown in the performance of the learner. • Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. • Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional
Social Cognitive Theory. This theory was developed by Bandura (1986) which provides a framework for understanding, predicting and changing human behavior (Ormrod, 2012). According to Bandura (1986), behavior of individuals is shaped by the behavior, personal factors and the environment which he referred to as ‘the triad determinants’. He adds that these three determinants influence each other hence shaping how people behave. The general principles in this theory are; people learn by observing other people’s behavior, learning is an internal behavior which may or may not lead to a behavior, during the learning process, people need to be motivated as well for an action to happen, people set goals for themselves depending on what they have observed from others and lastly, people are able to control their actions depending on the consequences that they have observed from others (Bandura, 1986).
In short, the learner must actively construct new information into his or her existing mental framework for meaningful learning to occur.” (K, Patterson 1) Cognitivist tend to try and make sure that whatever they are taught that they can connect it to the existing knowledge they have already. Cognitivists, they place greater importance on
It focuses on how learners process inputs and outputs (Robert Gagne) it is the internal mental organization of knowledge, where knowledge is stored in a person’s schemata. In cognitivism theory a better and faster learning can be achieved by constructing a learning environment that rein-forces different learning styles. It can be best taught through lectures, visual tools such as mind maps and charts to facilitate memorization for learning .cognitive focuses on higher mental thinking activities such a problem solving and decision making.it requires a person to use their minds and think outside the box, think of solutions .for example learners need to be actively involved in their learning and that is based on their prior knowledge and past experience. For example you need to visualize a picture of a person so that when you ask a “who” question you know that you’re talking about a person or living thing and that visual is going to remain in their minds making it easy for them to remember that “who” stands for a living thing or person. Cognitive stresses the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structures.
From the information processing theory, this writer has used the process of guiding students as each one develops his or her sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory regarding a standard. This instructor has found that sensory memory images and recordings work the best (this educator is a social studies teacher. Regarding short-term memory, recall is important so therefore a variety of activities are used by which the student must remember aspects of the lesson and apply to other assignments. Long-term memory is reinforced not just by giving the student a unit test, rather it is demonstrated by giving the student assignments by which the student must make the connections between a previously learned topic to a newly acquired one (i.e. how World War I, the Great Depression, Fascism, Nazism, and Japanese Imperialism contributed to World War
This theory aims to explain the mechanisms and processes of children in understanding and discovering the world. There are 3 basic elements in theory of cognitive development which are schema, assimilation and accommodation. A schema composed of both a basic unit of knowledge in organizing past experiences and the foundation for obtaining new knowledge. Schema can exist in several ways such as stereotype and script. Script is the process of ordering a Happy Meal in McDonald
Drills and memorization are the methods to fill the human mind. Innovative Learning-Cognitivism (2013) states that learning is an “internal process.” This entails that learning will be acquired more if the learners have higher interest to learn. This level of interest is a significant factor to reinforce critical and creative thinking of the learner. A cognitive-behaviorism is an interaction between the mind and behavior. The learner will behave accordingly if the learner thinks that he/she, his/her family, and other people will be benefited by what he/she is doing.