Theoretical Framework In International Relations

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1. Theoretical Framework 1.1. Power To begin with, it is essential to note that this part of the thesis intends to establish a coherent framework for further analysis of the case study. A coherent framework is essential to provide clarity over the concept of power and how it further defines the concept of soft power. It begins with a literature review which aims to establish comprehensive parameters to analyze the case. 1.1.1. The concept of Power: Result from the debates As many researchers argue, power might be one of the most interesting concepts in the social sciences. This is not only because power is contested and arguable in terms of its definition but also because power can be viewed from different disciplines. The conflict among scholars…show more content…
The first face of power focuses on the decision-making process with regards to particular issues. Baldwin (2013, ibid) argues that this face of power is associated with how one particular country tries to influence the making of foreign policy in another country (p.276). Furthermore, the second face of power is "getting what you want through indirect means" (Nye, 2004, p. 5). An example of this is how a particular country can supress the agenda items of other countries to get the desired result (Baldwin, 2013, p. 276). Finally, the third face of power according to Shapiro (2006, p.146) in his review of Luke's piece refers to the ability of a country to "manipulate" the agenda in order to get the desired outcomes. In Baldwin's view (2013), the last face of power is closely related to Nye's definition of power or Gramci's view of "hegemony" (Luke, 2005,2007). An example of this is the ability of the United States (US) to make other states embrace the "Washington Consensus" (Baldwin, 2013, p. 276). Because the concept of power remains controversial, the debates have stimulated scholars of IR to generate new terms of power, which means the concept is developing. We could not ignore that the heated conceptual debates have led scholars to develop several types of power, such as hard power, economic power, soft power (Nye, 1990,2002,2004,2007), compulsory power, institutional power, structural power, productive power (Barnett & Duvall, 2005), normative power (Diez & Manners, 2007), discursive power (Fuchs & Kalfagianni, 2009), network power (Grewal,2010), and smart power (Nye,

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